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Table 2 DFs for energy substitution identified in scientific literature

From: Wood substitution potential in greenhouse gas emission reduction–review on current state and application of displacement factors

Energy DFs
Authors Country Description DF Unit
Fortin et al. (2012) France Domestic energy wood and industrial wood pellets replace electricity and oil 0.076 Mg/m3 of C eq.
Fortin et al. (2012) France Wood pellets 0.126 Mg/m3 of C eq.
Böttcher et al. (2012) Germany Substituting heating oil by biomass 0.8 Fossil fuel-C substituted/tonne biofuel-C harvested
Smyth et al. (2014) Canada Domestic bioenergy −0.08–0. 79 Mg C/Mg C
Smyth et al. (2014) Canada International bioenergy 0.6 Mg C/Mg C
Knauf et al. (2015) Germany Fuel substitution 0.67 t C/t C
Soimakallio et al. (2016) Finland Substitution factor for paper products (fossil fuel substitution) 0.8 t C/t C
Soimakallio et al. (2016) Finland Substitution factor for paperboard products (plastics, fossil fuel substitution) 1.40 t C/t C
Soimakallio et al. (2016) Finland Substitution factor for energy and post-used mechanical wood products (fossil fuel substitution) 0.47–0.89 t C/t C
Knauf (2016) Germany Fuel substitution 0.67 t C/t C
Knauf et al. (2016) Germany Fuel substitution 0.67 t C/t C
Han et al. (2016) South Korea Sawnwood and industrial roundwood substituting fossil fuels for heating purposes 0.076 Mg/m3 C eq.
Han et al. (2016) South Korea Wood pellets and industrial roundwood substituting fossil fuels for heating purposes 0.126 Mg/m3 C eq.
Matsumoto et al. (2016) Japan Logging residues, process residues and waste wood; Substitution of residues and waste wood for heavy oil kg 108.9 kg C/m3
Cintas et al. (2016) Sweden Forest-based bioenergy 0.55–1.27 Mg of fossil C is displaced/Mg of C in biomass used
Smyth et al. (2017a) Canada Bioenergy from harvest residues 0–2 t C/t C
Härtl et al. (2017) Germany Timber used in energy production 0.67 t Cfossil/t Ctimber
Smyth et al. (2017b) Canada Bioenergy using an optimized selection of bioenergy facilities which maximized avoided emissions from fossil fuels. 0.47–0.89 t C/t C
Ji et al. (2016) China Substitute for Coal 0.96 t C/t C
Ji et al. (2016) China Substitute for Oil 0.79 t C/t C
Ji et al. (2016) China Substitute for Natural Gas 0.56 t C/t C
Baul et al. (2017) Finland Energy biomass 0.5 t C/t C
Suter et al. (2017) Switzerland Heat replacing light fuel oil 0.55 t CO2-eq/m3
Suter et al. (2017) Switzerland Heat replacing natural gas 0.32 t CO2-eq/m3
Suter et al. (2017) Switzerland Electricity mix CH 0.12 t CO2-eq/m3 wood
Schweinle et al. (2018) Germany Displacement of fossil fuel with wood fuel 0.67 t C/t C
Chen et al. (2018) Canada Wood used to produce energy for the HWP industry reduced fossil fuel-based emissions 2.00 t CO2 eq/t C in wood
Smyth et al. (2018) Canada Collected harvest residues for bioenergy, energy demand and displacement factors two forest management unit 0.38, 0.95 t C/t C
Köhl et al. (2020) Germany Lignite substitution in order to achieve carbon neutrality 1.9 t C/t C
Köhl et al. (2020) Germany Gas substitution in order to achieve carbon neutrality 2.5 t C/t C
Hurmekoski et al. (2020) Finland Wood use replacing CHP of fossil origin 0.7 t C/t C
Hurmekoski et al. (2020) Finland Wood-based transport fuel replacing diesel 0.63 t C/t C
Hurmekoski et al. (2020) Finland Wood-based ethanol replacing transport fuel 0.7 t C/t C