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Table 1 Journal articles and scientific reports including application of DFs as a result of a literature review. The assessment was separated to consideration of DF source and inclusion of some key factors in DFs or separately from them, Yes refers to Included, No (E) refers to Excluded and No (CS) refers to considered separately

From: Wood substitution potential in greenhouse gas emission reduction–review on current state and application of displacement factors

Authors DF source Countries/
Time series considered
Included in DF
Forest C HWP C Post-use of HWP Fossil fuel input in wood processing
Fortin et al. (2012) FCBA (2009a, 2009b); Hischier (2007); and Puettmann and Wilson (2005) France/ 250 years No (E) No (CS) No (CS) No (CS)
Böttcher et al. (2012) Petersen and Solberg (2005); Dornburg and Faaij (2005) Germany/ 300 years No (CS) No (CS) No (CS) Yes
Smyth et al. (2014) own calculations Canada/ 2015–2050 No (CS) No (CS) No (E) Yes
Knauf et al. (2015) own calculations Germany/ 2011–2050 and 2100 No (CS) No (CS) No (CS) Yes
Soimakallio et al. (2016) own calculations Finland/ 100 years from 2010 No (CS) No (CS) No (CS) No (CS)
Knauf (2016) Knauf et al. (2015) Germany/ 2011–2100 No (E) No (CS) No (CS) Yes
Han et al. (2016) Adopted from Chung et al. (2013) South Korea/ 280 years No (CS) No (CS) No (CS) No (CS)
Matsumoto et al. (2016) Noda et al. (2016); Kayo et al. (2011)
Japan Environmental Management Association for Industry (2014)
Japan/ 2010–2050 No (CS) No (CS) No (CS) Yes
Cintas et al. (2016) own calculations Sweden/ 300 years No (CS) No (CS) Yes No (CS)
Smyth et al. (2017a) own calculations Canada/ 2015 to 2050 No (CS) No (CS) No (E) Yes
Härtl et al. (2017) Rüter (2011) and Rock and Bolte (2011) Germany/ 2015–2040 No (CS) No (CS) Yes Yes
Schweinle et al. (2018) Knauf (2015) Germany/ 2013–2208 No (CS) No (CS) No (CS) Yes
Smyth et al. (2017b) own calculations Canada/ 2017 to 2050 No (CS) No (CS) No (E) Yes
Ji et al. (2016) own calculations China/ 1960–2014 No (E) No (CS) No (E) No (CS)
Baul et al. (2017) own calculations Finland/ 2016–2055 No (CS) No (CS) Yes/No (E) Yes
Suter et al. (2017) own calculations Switzerland/ 2011 No (E) No (CS) Yes Yes
Chen et al. (2018) own calculations Canada/ 100 years No (CS) No (CS) No (E) Yes
Smyth et al. (2018) Smyth et al. (2016) Canada/ 2018 to 2050 No (CS) No (CS) No (E) Yes
Köhl et al. (2020) own calculations Germany/ 2013 to 2015 No (CS) No (CS) Yes/No (E) Yes
Hurmekoski et al. (2020) own calculations Finland/ 2015–2056 No (CS) No (CS) Yes Yes
Buchanan and Levine (1999) own calculations New Zealand/ not specified No (E) No (E) No (E) Yes
Nepal et al. (2016) based on estimates from Sathre and O’Connor (2010) United States/ 2010–2060 Yes /No (CS) No (CS) No (E) Yes
Rüter et al. (2016) own calculations Europe/ 2000–2030 No (CS) No (CS) Yes Yes
Geng et al. (2017b) own calculations not specified No (E) Yes/No (E) Yes/No (E) Yes
Härtl et al. (2017) Rüter (2011) and Rock and Bolte (2011) Germany/ 2010–2040 No (CS) No (CS) Yes Yes
Xu et al. (2018) Smyth et al. (2016) Canada/ 2017–2050 No (CS) No (CS) No (CS) Yes
Keith et al. (2015) Sathre and O’Connor (2010) Australia/ 20, 50 and 100 year periods No (CS) No (CS) No Yes
Macintosh et al. (2015) Sathre and O’Connor (2010) Australia/ 2013–2113 No (CS) No (CS) No (E) No (CS)
Knauf et al. (2016) own calculations Germany/ 2011–2100 No (E) No (CS) No (CS) Yes
Butarbutar et al. (2016) Sathre and O’Connor (2010) Not specified/ 2010 No (CS) No (CS) Yes/No (E) Yes
Taeroe et al. (2017) Sathre and O’Connor (2010) Denmark/ 200 years No (CS) No (CS) No (CS) Yes
Lobianco et al. (2016) Sathre and O’Connor (2010) France/ 2007–2100 No (CS) No (CS) No (CS) Yes
Seppälä et al. (2019) own calculations Finland/ 100 years No (CS) No (CS) Yes Yes
Olguin et al. (2018) Sathre and O’Connor (2010); Smyth et al. (2014, 2016) Mexico/ 2010–2050 No (CS) No (CS) No (E) Yes
Kayo et al. (2015) own calculations Japan/ 2010–2050 No (E) No (CS) No (CS) Yes
Geng et al. (2019) own calculations China/ 2015 No (E) No (E) No (E) Yes
Chen et al. (2014) own calculations Canada/ 1901–2010 No (E) No (CS) No (CS) No (CS)