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Table 3 The litter coverage, number of overwintering pupae, and pupal cases in each plot

From: Spatial patterns of insect herbivory within a forest landscape: the role of soil type and forest stratum

Parameters Loam area   Gravel soil area
Plot 1 Plot 2 Plot 3   Plot 1 Plot 2 Plot 3
Litter coverage (%) 70 85 75   40 35 55
Overwintering pupae 3 3 4   0 1 2
Pupal cases 7 9 9   4 3 5