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Table 4 Variation between 1990 and 2018 as regards the values obtained for the different fragmentation indicators by forest type, showing the Z and p-value from the Wilcoxon paired test. Mean-dif = value 2018 – value 1990; SD = standard deviation

From: Deforestation and fragmentation trends of seasonal dry tropical forest in Ecuador: impact on conservation

Forest type Deciduous Semi-deciduous Transition
Year 1990 2018 1990 2018 1990 2018
RFI (%) Mean 39.14 49.75 45.92 59.47 33.94 42.99
SD 27.34 32.96 16.17 23.34 22.22 26.79
Median 42.18 49.12 49.1 54.07 33.73 42.56
Mean-dif (± SD) 11.20 (± 19.18) 16.53 (± 24.17) 9.58 (± 17.45)
Z 15.08 28.32 20.34
p-value p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001
NumP n 595 511 1528 1334 1089 1021
Mean 7.48 7.39 5.72 5.14 5.58 4.73
SD 10.79 11.62 7.15 7.25 6.93 6.51
Median 3 3 4 3 3 3
Mean-dif (± SD) −1.11 (± 5.26) −1.15 (± 4.30) −1.13 (± 4.86)
Z −7.02 −11.26 −8.51
p-value p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001
MPS (km2) Mean 2.34 2.35 0.92 0.58 2.51 2.15
SD 3.55 3.40 1.90 1.46 3.36 3.06
Median 0.35 0.47 0.17 0.12 0.72 0.64
Mean-dif (± SD) −0.31 (± 1.88) −0.38 (± 1.31) −0.49 (± 2.19)
Z −8.03 −18.00 −9.21
p-value p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001
MedPS (km2) Mean 2.11 2.16 0.76 0.47 2.24 1.91
SD 3.64 3.48 1.92 1.46 3.49 3.16
Median 0.02 0.07 0.05 0.05 0.08 0.14
Mean-dif (± SD) −0.25 (± 2.19) −0.32 (± 1.44) −0.43 (± 2.50)
Z −4.59 −11.30 −5.42
p-value p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001
TE (km) Mean 15.42 15.01 15.59 11.91 20.90 18.02
SD 12.14 10.91 12.59 10.67 12.85 11.76
Median 13.39 13.73 12.83 8.73 20.21 17.15
Mean-dif (± SD) −2.48 (± 7.98) −4.86 (± 10.13) −3.94 (± 10.89)
Z −6.6 −18.57 −10.22
p-value p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001
ED (km·km−2) Mean 42.92 35.57 20.04 29.52 23.26 31.51
SD 259.28 106.75 45.19 74.97 97 214
Median 7.05 9.02 13.02 17.43 7.13 8.72
Mean-dif (± SD) −7.35 (± 269) 9.49 (± 71.8) 8.26 (± 218)
Z 6.04 16.71 10.03
p-value p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001