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Table 5 Displacement factors for material use

From: Wood substitution potential in greenhouse gas emission reduction–review on current state and application of displacement factors

Material use DFs     
Authors Country Description DF Unit
Smyth et al. 2014 Canada Sawnwood 0.38 Mg C avoided/Mg C used
Smyth et al. 2014 Canada Panel 0.77 Mg C avoided/Mg C used
Kalt et al. (2015) Austria Average DF in simulations 2.67 C/C
Knauf et al. (2015) Germany Average wood use as material 1.50 t C/t C
Knauf et al. (2015) Germany DIY products like lumber, panels, profile boards vs. mineral based products, plastic based panels, aluminum sheets 1.35 t C/t C
Knauf et al. (2015) Germany Wooden transportation products vs. plastic, metal 1.62 t C/t C
Keith et al. (2015) Australia Substitution of nonwood 2.1 t C/t C
Knauf (2015) Germany Average wood use as material 1.5 t C/t C
Macintosh et al. (2015) Australia emissions-intensive non-wood substitutes replace foregone sawnwood products 2.1 t C/t C
Knauf et al. (2016) Germany Material substitution 1.5 t C/t C
Butarbutar et al. (2016) Not specified Timber 0.8 t CO2e/m3 of wood product
Butarbutar et al. (2016) Not specified Timber and mill residues 2.1 t CO2e/m3 of wood product
Cintas et al. (2016) Sweden Sawnwood 2.31 Mg C/Mg C
Soimakallio et al. (2016) Finland substitution factor for sawn wood and wood-based panels (concrete, steel substitution) 1.3 t C/t C
Butarbutar et al. (2016)   Material substitution 2.1 t C/t C
Lobianco et al. (2016) France Material substitution 1.28 t C/t C
Han et al. (2016) South Korea Sawnwood and industrial roundwood substituting fossil-fuel-intensive materials, such as steel, concrete and plastics 0.04 Mg/m3 C eq.
Taeroe et al. (2017) Denmark Wood product substitution 2.10 t C/t C
Baul et al. (2017) Finland Sawn wood 2 t C/t C
Cintas et al. (2016) Sweden Sawnwood 2.10 Mg C/Mg C
Smyth et al. (2017a) Canada sawnwood 0.54 t C/t C
Smyth et al. (2017a) Canada basket of end-use products included buildings 0.45 t C/t C
Suter et al. (2017) Switzerland Glued laminated timber substituting primary steel 0.68 t CO2-eq/m3 wood
Suter et al. (2017) Switzerland Glued laminated timber substituting secondary steel 0.14 t CO2-eq/m3 wood
Suter et al. (2017) Switzerland Sawnwood products replacing concrete 0.5 t CO2-eq/m3 wood
Suter et al. (2017) Switzerland Sawnwood products replacing bricks 0.37 t CO2-eq/m3 wood
Suter et al. (2017) Switzerland Sawnwood products replacing polyethylene 0.85 t CO2-eq/m3 wood
Suter et al. (2017) Switzerland Sawnwood products replacing aluminium, secondary 0.32 t CO2-eq/m3 wood
Suter et al. (2017) Switzerland Sawnwood products replacing aluminium, primary 3.76 t CO2-eq/m3 wood
Suter et al. (2017) Switzerland Sawnwood products replacing polypropylene 1.39 t CO2-eq/m3 wood
Suter et al. (2017) Switzerland Sawnwood products replacing steel, chromium, secondary 1.23 t CO2-eq/m3 wood
Suter et al. (2017) Switzerland Sawnwood products replacing steel, chromium, primary 0.41 t CO2-eq/m3 wood
Suter et al. (2017) Switzerland Board, fibre substituting gypsum fibreboard −0.31 t CO2-eq/m3 wood
Suter et al. (2017) Switzerland Board, fibre, soft subsituting rockwool 0.02 t CO2-eq/m3 wood
Suter et al. (2017) Switzerland Board, particle 0.17 t CO2-eq/m3 wood
Suter et al. (2017) Switzerland Board, particle replacint glass 0.29 t CO2-eq/m3 wood
Suter et al. (2017) Switzerland Plywood replacing chromium, secondary 1.52 t CO2-eq/m3 wood
Suter et al. (2017) Switzerland Plywood replacing chromium, primary 0.24 t CO2-eq/m3 wood
Olguin et al. (2018) Mexico Sawnwood and panels 0.45–2 t C avoided/t C used
Lobianco et al. (2016) France Material substitution of wood
Board, fibre, soft subsituting polystyrene
1.28 t C/t C
Seppälä et al. (2019) Finland Required displacement factors for additional amounts of wood-based products and fuels produced from domestic wood, compared to the basic harvesting
scenario
1.3–2.4 t C/t C