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Table 3 Displacement factors for construction

From: Wood substitution potential in greenhouse gas emission reduction–review on current state and application of displacement factors

Construction DFs
Authors Country Description DF Unit
Buchanan and Levine (1999) New Zealand Concrete to wood, hostel 1.05 Reduced emission carbon by the increase in stored carbon
Buchanan and Levine (1999) New Zealand Concrete to wood, office 1.10 Reduced emission carbon by the increase in stored carbon
Buchanan and Levine (1999) New Zealand Steel to wood, industry 1.60 Reduced emission carbon by the increase in stored carbon
Buchanan and Levine (1999) New Zealand Concrete, steel to wood, houses 2.1–15 Reduced emission carbon by the increase in stored carbon
Fortin et al. (2012) France Truss and flooring 0.169 Mg/m3 of C eq.
Fortin et al. (2012) France Exterior cladding 0.024 Mg/m3 of C eq.
Fortin et al. (2012) France Interior coverings 0.024 Mg/m3 of C eq.
Fortin et al. 2012) France Other end-use products 0.024 Mg/m3 of C eq.
Böttcher et al. (2012) Germany Building construction (Picea) 0.24 t fossil fuel-C substituted/t of wood-C harvested
Böttcher et al. (2012) Germany Building construction (Fagus) 0.16 t fossil fuel-C substituted/t of wood-C harvested
Chen et al. (2014) Canada Wood replacing houses with fossil raw materials (steel, concrete) 2.40 t C/t C
Knauf et al. (2015) Germany Roundwood (poles, fences, buildings, also treated) vs. steel, concrete, aluminum 2.40 t C/t C
Knauf et al. (2015) Germany Softwood lumber, sawn, wet, for packaging concrete shuttering vs. plastics (foils, 3-D elements) 1.80 t C/t C
Knauf et al. (2015) Germany Softwood lumber, planned and dried for building Purposes 1.40 t C/t C
Knauf et al. (2015) Germany Softwood based glued timber products (glue-lam, CLT) vs. 1.30 t C/t C
Knauf et al. (2015) Germany Plywood, also overlaid vs. aluminum profiles, glass-fiber plastic 1.62 t C/t C
Knauf et al. (2015) Germany Wood-based panels like particleboard, MDF, OSB (for walls, ceilings, roofs) vs. gypsum board, plaster, concrete, brick type walls 1.1 t C/t C
Knauf et al. (2015) Germany DIY products like lumber, panels, profile boards vs. mineral 1.35 t C/t C
Knauf et al. (2015) Germany Wooden flooring (one layer, multi layers), laminate flooring vs. ceramic tiles, plastic flooring, wall to wall carpet 1.35 t C/t C
Knauf et al. (2015) Germany Doors (interior, exterior) – only framing/construction vs. steel, aluminum, PVC 1.62 t C/t C
Knauf et al. (2015) Germany Wooden window frames vs. PVC, aluminum 1.62 t C/t C
Knauf et al. (2015) Germany Wooden furniture (solid wood) vs. glass, plastic, metal 1.62 t C/t C
Knauf et al. (2015) Germany Wooden furniture (panel based) vs. glass, plastics, metal 1.42 t C/t C
 Knauf et al. (2015) Germany Wooden kitchen furniture vs. glass, plastics, metal 1.62 t C/t C
Knauf et al. (2015) Germany Wooden transportation products vs. plastic, metal 1.62 t C/t C
Kayo et al. (2015) Japan Building construction: substitution of wooden buildings for non-wooden buildings 60.56 kg C/m2
Kayo et al. (2015) Japan Civil engineering: substitution of wooden piles for cement and sand piles 46.77 kg C/m3
Kayo et al. (2015) Japan Civil engineering: substitution of wooden guardrails for metal guardrails 64.48 kg C/m3
Kayo et al. (2015) Japan Furniture: substitution of wooden furniture for metal furniture 43.17 kg C/m3
Nepal et al. (2016) United States Extra wood products used in nonresidential construction buildings 2.03 Ton CO2e/t CO2e
Rüter et al. (2016) Europe Core and shell 2010 1.58 kg CO2-eq./kg HWP
Rüter et al. (2016) Europe Core and shell 2030 1.25 kg CO2-eq./kg HWP
Rüter et al. (2016) Europe Insulation 2010 −0.40 kg CO2-eq./kg HWP
Rüter et al. (2016) Europe Insulation 2030 −0.32 kg CO2-eq./kg HWP
Rüter et al. (2016) Europe Windows 2010 5.53 kg CO2-eq./kg HWP
Rüter et al. (2016) Europe Windows 2030 4.42 kg CO2-eq./kg HWP
Rüter et al. (2016) Europe Claddings 2010 0.9 kg CO2-eq./kg HWP
Rüter et al. (2016) Europe Claddings 2030 0.72 kg CO2-eq./kg HWP
Rüter et al. 2016) Europe Laminates 2010 1.52 kg CO2-eq./kg HWP
Rüter et al. (2016) Europe Laminates 2030 1.22 kg CO2-eq./kg HWP
Rüter et al. (2016) Europe Parquets 2010 −0.0164 kg CO2-eq./kg HWP
Rüter et al. (2016) Europe Parquets 2030 −0.0131 kg CO2-eq./kg HWP
Matsumoto et al. (2016) Japan Sawnwood and plywood; substitution of wooden buildings for non-wooden buildings 301.30 kg C/m3
Matsumoto et al. (2016) Japan Roundwood and sawnwood; substitution of wooden piles for cement and sand piles 46.8 kg C/m3
Matsumoto et al. (2016) Japan Roundwood and sawnwood; substitution of wooden guardrails for metal guardrails 64.5 kg C/m3
Matsumoto et al. (2016) Japan Sawnwood and plywood; substitution of wooden furniture for metal furniture 43.2 kg C/m3
Geng et al. (2017b) China Ceramic tile replaced with wood flooring 0.17–0.78 tC/m3
Härtl et al. (2017) Germany Timber as sawnlogs used in construction 1.66 t Cfossil/t Ctimber
Xu et al. (2018) Canada Sawnwood for single-family home, multi-family home, and multi-use building 2.10 t C/t C
Xu et al. (2018) Canada Panels for single-family home, multi-family home, and multi-use building 2.20 t C/t C
Chen et al. (2018) Canada Residential contruction 9.56 t CO2 eq emissions reduced per tonne of C
Chen et al. (2018) Canada Non-residential construction 3.64 t CO2 eq emissions reduced per tonne of C
Geng et al. (2019) China Furniture sector 1.46 t C/t C
Hurmekoski et al. (2020) Finland Sawnwood in construction 1.1 t C/t C
Hurmekoski et al. (2020) Finland Plywood in construction 1.1 t C/t C