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Table 1 Main characteristics of each site and mean tree-ring width (and standard deviation) and dendrochronological statistics for the period 1950–2000

From: Tree growth is more limited by drought in rear-edge forests most of the times

Species Site name Site type Latitude (N) Longitude (−W, +E) Elevation (m a.s.l.) Dbh (cm) No. trees (No. radii) Timespan TRW (mm) SD (mm) CV rbar EPS
Abies alba Gamueta Northern 42.88 −0.78 1400 58.4 22 (43) 1558–2018 1.43a 0.97 0.68 0.26 0.94
Bujaruelo Intermediate 42.71 −0.13 1420 47.2 16 (32) 1882–2017 3.41b 1.63 0.48 0.29 0.89
Guara Rear edge 42.30 −0.12 1428 39.0 19 (38) 1887–2011 3.59b 1.37 0.38 0.46 0.94
Fagus sylvatica Betato Northern 42.71 −0.33 1841 38.9 15 (30) 1895–2017 2.03b 1.08 0.53 0.55 0.97
Monrepos Intermediate 42.37 −0.37 1560 36.3 16 (32) 1877–2011 1.58b 0.94 0.59 0.36 0.95
Poyales Rear edge 42.10 −2.25 1400 42.0 12 (24) 1785–2017 0.89a 0.49 0.55 0.46 0.95
Pinus sylvestris Selva de Oza Northern 42.83 −0.72 1272 47.0 15 (30) 1910–2017 1.52b 0.75 0.49 0.46 0.89
Monrepos Intermediate 42.34 −0.40 1560 40.6 18 (36) 1860–2009 1.29b 0.73 0.57 0.45 0.95
Corbalán Rear edge 40.43 −0.97 1300 38.4 28 (56) 1800–2014 0.67a 0.46 0.68 0.60 0.97
Pinus uncinata Tessó del Son Northern 42.58 1.03 2239 63.5 36 (71) 1537–2017 1.23a 0.88 0.72 0.36 0.94
Vinuesa Intermediate 42.00 −2.73 2050 72.0 27 (54) 1559–2015 1.11a 0.80 0.72 0.33 0.95
Valdelinares Rear edge 40.37 −0.39 1955 51.8 35 (68) 1730–2006 1.10a 0.82 0.75 0.37 0.97
Quercus petraea Posadas Northern 42.22 −3.06 1180 38.6 13 (25) 1881–2014 1.09a 0.56 0.52 0.42 0.95
Monsomero Intermediate 41.35 −1.35 975 31.2 21 (41) 1935–2014 1.00a 0.67 0.67 0.54 0.98
Valdemeca Rear edge 40.18 −1.77 1576 33.5 16 (30) 1922–2014 2.34b 0.93 0.40 0.35 0.93
Quercus robur Beluntza Northern 42.95 −2.89 462 49.5 17 (34) 1824–2017 1.21a 0.47 0.39 0.45 0.94
Izki Intermediate 42.68 −2.48 760 48.6 34 (68) 1863–2008 1.63a 0.96 0.59 0.25 0.90
Moncayo Rear edge 41.81 −1.83 1202 38.2 16 (32) 1885–2000 1.31a 0.65 0.50 0.31 0.88
  1. Abbreviations: TRW Tree-ring width, SD Standard deviation, CV Coefficient of variation, rbar mean correlation between series, EPS Expressed population signal. The Dunnett multiple comparison test was used to compare TRW between populations of the same species and significant differences (p < 0.05) are indicated by different letters