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Table 2 Parameters of vegetation structure variables fitted to the DCA analysis results (coefficient of determination R2, and p value were obtained based on permutation tests with 999 iterations)

From: Forest land use discontinuity and northern red oak Quercus rubra introduction change biomass allocation and life strategy of lingonberry Vaccinium vitis-idaea

Variable – cover of DCA1 DCA2 R2 p
Canopy −0.732 −0.681 0.193 0.003
Shrub layer 0.952 −0.307 0.506 0.001
Herbaceous understory −0.282 −0.959 0.363 0.001
Bryophytes −0.857 −0.515 0.802 0.001
Pinus canopy −0.924 −0.383 0.192 0.002
Q. rubra subcanopy 0.856 0.518 0.776 0.001
Q. rubra shrub 0.989 −0.146 0.449 0.001