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Table 2 The simulated mean ecosystem service indicators for the study area in 2012–2016 compared with measurements taken from the surrounding regions (SF stands for Southern Finland, KH for Kanta-Häme and HU for Häme-Uusimaa, respectively). The litter and soil carbon estimates from the BioSoil (BS) data were derived from Rantakari et al. (2012) and those of the National Forest Inventory (NFI) from the statistical database of the Natural Resources Institute Finland (2020)

From: Bridging mapping and simulation modelling in the ecosystem service assessments of boreal forests: effects of bioenergy production on carbon dynamics

Variable Simulated Measured
Mean SD Mean SD Period Area Source
Soil carbon stock (kg C∙m−2) 8.5 0.02 6.7 3 2006 SF BS
Soil carbon change (kg C∙m−2∙year−1) 0.013 0.001 0.012 0.06 1985–2006 SF BS
Biomass carbon stock (kg C∙m−2) 6.7 0.11 5.9 0.42 2009–2018 KH NFI
Biomass carbon stock change (kg C∙m−2∙year −1) 0.071 0.004 0.041 0.005 2009–2018 KH NFI
Timber harvest, all tree species (m3∙ha−1∙year − 1) 5.2 0.12 4.9 0.55 2009–2014 HU NFI
Energy-wood harvest, spruce (m3∙ha−1∙year − 1) 0.141, 0.402 0.011, 0.032 0.27 0.04 2009–2014 HU NFI
  1. 1 Scenario 2 (only branches and tree tops), 2 Scenario 3 (branches, tree tops and stumps)