Free parameter between-groups was constrained | ML*χ*^{2} | ΔML*χ*^{2} | *P*-value |
---|

None | 9.688 | | |

path from LAT to PRCP | 18.075 | 8.434 | 0.004 |

path from LAT to ELE | 45.411 | 35.723 | 0.000 |

path from COV to BCD | 9.726 | 0.038 | **0.846** |

path from PRCP to BCD | 10.115 | 0.427 | **0.514** |

path from ELE to BCD | 13.816 | 4.127 | 0.042 |

path from LAT to AGE | 16.807 | 7.101 | 0.008 |

path from ELE to AGE | 9.844 | 0.153 | **0.696** |

path from AGE to COV | 14.844 | 5.233 | 0.022 |

path from AGE to BCD | 9.854 | 0.166 | **0.684** |

path from PRCP to COV | 9.707 | 0.024 | **0.876** |

- The first row shows the maximum likelihood
*χ*^{2} estimates (ML*χ*^{2}) when all parameters are free. The remaining rows show the result by constraining one parameter at a time. The difference between the fully free model and the rest is given as ΔML*χ*^{2}, and the *P*-value indicates the probability that the constraint of that parameter changes the model. Bonferroni-corrected *P*-value threshold, 0.05/13 = 0.0038. BCD, biomass carbon density; AGE, stand age; COV, stand coverage; LAT, latitude; ELE, elevation; PRCP, mean annual precipitation