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Table 2 Results from the best-fit linear mixed models for large (> 10 cm DBH), small (1 cm ≤ BDH < 10 cm) and all trees (DBH > 1 cm). BDobs: observed β-diversity. BDexp: expected β-diversity. BDdev: β-deviation (BDobs – BDexp)/SDexp. Conditional R2 takes into account both fixed and random effects to measure the goodness of adjustment and prediction power, while marginal R2 only has the fixed effects part. NS > 0.05, *p ≤ 0.05, ** p ≤ 0.01, *** p ≤ 0.001

From: The importance of grain and cut-off size in shaping tree beta diversity along an elevational gradient in the northwest of Colombia

 Dependent variableVariableParameterStandard errorp-valueMarginal R2Conditional R2
Large treesBDobs10 × 100.800.016***  
20 × 200.650.016***  
50 × 500.390.016***  
elevation−0.070.017**0.890.94
richness0.060.013**  
20 × 20 × elevation0.010.018NS  
50 × 50 × elevation0.050.018**  
BDexp10 × 100.780.015***  
20 × 200.580.015***  
50 × 500.300.015***0.930.95
elevation−0.080.011***  
richness0.050.012***  
BDdev10 × 103.850.7***  
20 × 206.730.7***  
50 × 506.800.7***  
elevation1.070.7NS0.940.95
richness0.040.006*  
20 × 20 × elevation0.620.5NS  
50 × 50 × elevation1.760.5**  
Small TreesBDobs5 × 50.770.011***  
10 × 100.570.013***0.940.95
20 × 200.370.013***  
elevation−0.030.011*  
richness0.020.007*  
BDexp5 × 50.700.014***  
10 × 100.470.014***  
20 × 200.250.014***0.920.96
elevation−0.050.013*  
richness0.020.012*  
BDdev5 × 59.801.0***  
10 × 1010.50.6***  
20 × 209.710.6***  
elevation22.531.0*0.250.85
10 × 10 × elevation0.030.6NS  
20 × 20 × elevation1.60.6*  
All TreesBDobs5 × 50.760.009***  
10 × 100.560.009***  
20 × 200.350.009***0.930.97
elevación−0.040.007***  
richness0.030.007*  
BDexp5 × 50.690.012***  
10 × 100.460.012***  
20 × 200.250.012***0.950.97
elevación−0.060.010***  
richness0.030.010**  
BDdev5 × 510.11.2***  
10 × 1010.61.2***0.300.80
20 × 2010.01.2***  
elevation2.651.7*