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Table 2 Effect of selective logging intensity on multiple EFs (mean values ± standard error)

From: Selective logging enhances ecosystem multifunctionality via increase of functional diversity in a Pinus yunnanensis forest in Southwest China

Selective logging Nutrient cycling Soil carbon stocks Decomposition Wood production
CG −0.831 ± 0.078bc − 0.729 ± 0.127c −0.836 ± 0.244bc −0.730 ± 0.370bc
SL1 − 0.684 ± 0.087c −0.647 ± 0.104c −0.620 ± 0.143b −0.820 ± 0.173c
SL2 − 0.025 ± 0.216b −0.150 ± 0.238bc −0.055 ± 0.242ab 0.327 ± 0.313ab
SL3 0.723 ± 0.307a 0.700 ± 0.260a −0.008 ± 0.149ac 0.119 ± 0.191b
SL4 −0.186 ± 0.092bc −0.273 ± 0.095c 0.453 ± 0.197a 0.875 ± 0.362a
SL5 0.467 ± 0.360a 0.658 ± 0.558ab 0.535 ± 0.298a − 0.231 ± 0.260bc
  1. Different lower case letter indicates significant differences at P < 0.05. The values of multiple EFs are obtained by the average of the standardized values (Z-score) related variables. CG: control group; SL1: selective logging one time; SL2: selective logging two times; SL3: selective logging three times; SL4: selective logging four times; SL5: selective logging five times. The interval of selective logging is about 7–8 years