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Table 4 CCA output for predictor variables in a mixed-pine forest ecosystem in the eastern Upper Peninsula of Michigan, USA. VIF = Variance Inflation factor (VIF). Correlation values are Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient (r)

From: Regeneration patterns of key pine species in a mixed-pine forest indicate a positive effect of variable retention harvesting and an increase in recruitment with time

Predictor variable F P Variation explained Correlation with Axis 1 Correlation with Axis 2 VIF
2 years since treatment
 Shrubs 12.8 0.001 19.8% 0.65 −0.27 1.3
 Ferns 9.3 0.001 15.2% −0.48 − 0.38 1.8
 Oak 5.8 0.003 10.1% −0.47 −0.01 1.2
 Maple 5.4 0.040 9.4% −0.32 −0.36 3.2
 Aspen 2.4 0.095 4.4% −0.23 0.24 1.1
 Herbs 1.7 0.156 3.1% −0.24 −0.12 2.4
6 years since treatment
 Maple 7.7 0.002 12.9% 0.61 0.02 1.3
 Oak 5.0 0.003 8.7% 0.29 0.42 1.2
 Herbs 4.4 0.004 7.9% −0.44 0.05 1.1
 Ferns 2.5 0.057 4.6% 0.09 −0.33 1.1
 Aspen 1.7 0.135 3.2% 0.29 0.09 1.2
 Shrubs 1.2 0.300 2.3% −0.04 0.15 1.1