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Table 2 ANOVA results showing the effects of treatment, time, and the interaction of treatment and time on the inventoried vegetation in a mixed-pine forest ecosystem in the eastern Upper Peninsula of Michigan, USA

From: Regeneration patterns of key pine species in a mixed-pine forest indicate a positive effect of variable retention harvesting and an increase in recruitment with time

Vegetation Treatment Time Treatment × Time Retention comparisons
Red pine F = 4.5, P = 0.01 F = 8.0, P = 0.005 F = 3.5, P = 0.03 P = 0.96
Eastern white pine F = 8.3, P = 0.0004 F = 1.27, P = 0.26 F = 0.9, P = 0.40 P = 0.87
Jack pine F = 1.4, P = 0.23 F = 5.9, P = 0.02 F = 1.4, P = 0.23 P = 0.99
Red maple F = 9.3, P = 0.0002 F = 5.4, P = 0.02 F = 0.3, P = 0.71 P = 0.004
Northern red oak F = 3.4, P = 0.04 F = 9.0, P = 0.003 F = 0.4, P = 0.68 P = 0.76
Aspen (quaking & bigtooth) F = 6.3, P = 0.003 F = 11.8, P = 0.0008 F = 1.8, P = 0.17 P = 0.62
Balsam fir F = 1.8, P = 0.17 F = 0.5, P = 0.49 F = 0.7, P = 0.49 P = 0.18
Black spruce F = 9.6, P = 0.0001 F = 1.8, P = 0.19 F = 1.1, P = 0.34 P = 0.97
Shrubs F = 0.2, P = 0.82 F = 133.4, P < 0.001 F = 0.6, P = 0.57 P = 0.81
Herbs F = 2.5, P = 0.08 F = 75.7, P < 0.001 F = 3.9, P = 0.02 P = 0.32
Ferns F = 3.2, P = 0.04 F = 173.3, P < 0.001 F = 2.3, P = 0.10 P = 0.09