Skip to main content

Table 1 Mean (± 1SE) seedling density (seedlings·ha− 1) by retention treatment for tree species documented in a mixed-pine forest ecosystem in the eastern Upper Peninsula of Michigan, USA

From: Regeneration patterns of key pine species in a mixed-pine forest indicate a positive effect of variable retention harvesting and an increase in recruitment with time

Species common name Species scientific name Mean seedling density (± 1SE) (seedlings·ha− 1)
Aggregated Dispersed Control
2 years since treatment
 Red pine Pinus resinosa L. 0 a 104 ± 76 a 0 a
 Eastern white pine Pinus strobus L. 659 ± 185 ab 763 ± 229 a 138 ± 95 b
 Jack pine Pinus banksiana Lamb. 0 a 0 a 0 a
 Red maple Acer rubrum L. 6840 ± 1895 a 2395 ± 420 b 1979 ± 515 b
 Northern red oak Quercus rubra L. 1076 ± 230 a 1631 ± 375 a 659 ± 274 a
 Aspen (quaking & bigtooth) Populus spp. 1215 ± 430 a 3715 ± 941 b 69 ± 69 a
 Balsam fir Abies balsamea (L.) Mill. 243 ± 430 a 0 a 486 ± 450 a
 Black spruce Picea mariana (Mill.) 0 a 0 a 381 ± 203 a
6 years since treatment
 Red pine Pinus resinosa L. 312 ± 91 a 208 ± 91 ab 0 b
 Eastern white pine Pinus strobus L. 1180 ± 298 a 868 ± 290 ab 104 ± 56 b
 Jack pine Pinus banksiana Lamb. 138 ± 80 a 138 ± 80 a 0 a
 Red maple Acer rubrum L. 10,833 ± 2452 a 5381 ± 1600 ab 3541 ± 954 b
 Northern red oak Quercus rubra L. 2569 ± 410 a 2638 ± 636 a 1388 ± 557 a
 Aspen (quaking & bigtooth) Populus spp. 5590 ± 1372 a 4756 ± 1151 a 2222 ± 753 a
 Balsam fir Abies balsamea (L.) Mill. 833 ± 429 a 0 a 416 ± 350 a
 Black spruce Picea mariana (Mill.) 0 a 69 ± 47 a 798 ± 306 b