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Table 3 Paired t-tests under the hypothesis of equal variances. \( \hat{\Delta } \) is the difference between the mean estimate derived with SRS, MAT, SDR, RIP, or DOR and the design based variance (DES). \( \left|\hat{t}\right| \) is the absolute value of the t-statistics (effect size), and \( P\left(\left|\hat{t}\right|\ |\Delta =0\right) \) is the probability of a greater \( \left|\hat{t}\right| \) under the null hypothesis of a zero difference

From: Comparison of estimators of variance for forest inventories with systematic sampling - results from artificial populations

Estimator contrastn\( \hat{\Delta }\times {10}^4 \)\( \left|\hat{t}\right| \)\( P\left(\left|\hat{t}\right||\Delta =0\right) \)
SRS-DES4000.81.310.20
5760.20.370.72
9000.00.160.87
16000.00.110.91
MAT-DES4000.20.300.77
5760.30.520.61
9000.30.600.55
16000.10.400.69
SDR-DES4000.30.540.60
5760.20.430.67
9000.20.540.59
16000.10.400.69
RIP-DES4000.50.730.47
5760.20.340.74
9000.30.680.50
16000.20.800.43
DOR-DES400−0.50.840.41
576−0.71.390.17
900−0.51.220.23
1600−0.20.730.47