Variable | Saplings | Small trees |
---|

Pinaceae | Fagaceae | Pinaceae | Fagaceae |
---|

Coef. ± S.E. | Coef. ± S.E. | Coef. ± S.E. | Coef. ± S.E. |
---|

(Intercept) | 2.50 ± 0.66*** | 7.56 ± 0.50*** | 4.93 ± 0.66*** | 7.72 ± 0.34*** |

Overstory Mixed | 0.58 ± 0.15*** | 0.17 ± 0.05*** | – | – |

Overstory Pine | 0.61 ± 0.17*** | 0.54 ± 0.11*** | – | – |

sqrt (Total BA) | 0.07 ± 0.03* | − 0.07 ± 0.02*** | 0.11 ± 0.03*** | − 0.08 ± 0.02*** |

log (Temperature) | −0.38 ± 0.17* | −0.99 ± 0.13*** | −0.65 ± 0.16*** | −0.53 ± 0.11*** |

log (Precipitation) | 0.54 ± 0.09*** | 0.31 ± 0.07*** | 0.35 ± 0.09*** | – |

Wildfires | – | 0.30 ± 0.04*** | −0.14 ± 0.06* | 0.12 ± 0.04** |

Grazing | 0.08 ± 0.05 | −0.25 ± 0.04*** | – | − 0.10 ± 0.04** |

Pests | – | – | – | – |

Wood extractions | 0.14 ± 0.06* | −0.09 ± 0.05 | – | – |

Land tenure Public | 0.49 ± 0.32 | – | – | −0.04 ± 0.25 |

Land tenure Social | 0.13 ± 0.06* | – | – | 0.10 ± 0.04* |

*R*^{2} marginal | 0.054 | 0.059 | 0.045 | 0.022 |

*R*^{2} conditional | 0.107 | 0.111 | 0.085 | 0.083 |

- Coefficient values are given relative to the reference level for each factor-type variable (Overstory = ‘Oak’, Land tenure = ‘Private’, and no/low disturbance level for all disturbance types), which implies that the estimate for the reference level of each factor is included in the intercept, and the coefficients for the additional (non-reference) factor levels indicate how they deviate from the overall intercept. State was included as a random factors (see text). Model selection was based on AIC. Some variables were log- or square-root (sqrt) transformed to ensure normality, as indicated below. Significance codes: * 0.05 <
*P* < 0.01; ** 0.01 < *P* < 0.001; *** *P* < 0.001