Skip to main content

Table 1 Estimated coefficients (and corresponding standard errors, S.E.) of generalized linear mixed-effects models of the presence of saplings and small trees (binomial variable: yes, no) as a function of family (Fagaceae or Pinaceae), overstory composition (Overstory; oak, mixed or pine), total plot basal area (BA), climate variables (mean annual temperature and annual precipitation), occurrence of several disturbance types (wildfires, grazing, pests, wood extractions), land tenure (private, public or social), and the interactions between family and all the other variables

From: Regeneration patterns in Mexican pine-oak forests

VariableSaplingsSmall trees
(Coef. ± S.E.)(Coef. ± S.E.)
(Intercept)−2.07 ± 0.90*−0.03 ± 0.69
Family Pinaceae− 0.08 ± 0.992.00 ± 0.89*
Overstory mxed−0.30 ± 0.10**−0.18 ± 0.08*
Overstory pine−1.72 ± 0.16***−2.30 ± 0.19***
sqrt (Total BA)0.04 ± 0.040.04 ± 0.03
log (Mean temperature)0.63 ± 0.24**0.11 ± 0.19
log (Precipitation)0.27 ± 0.14*0.02 ± 0.11
Wildfires0.54 ± 0.10***0.01 ± 0.07
Grazing−0.22 ± 0.09**−0.23 ± 0.06***
Pests0.09 ± 0.120.04 ± 0.09
Wood extractions0.19 ± 0.110.05 ± 0.08
Land tenure Public−0.65 ± 0.45−0.15 ± 0.41
Land tenure Social0.06 ± 0.09−0.05 ± 0.07
Family Pinaceae: Overstory mixed3.25 ± 0.18***3.36 ± 0.22***
Family Pinaceae: Overstory pine5.22 ± 0.26***5.64 ± 0.31***
Family Pinaceae: sqrt (Total BA)0.04 ± 0.060.07 ± 0.05
Family Pinaceae: log (Mean temperature)−1.97 ± 0.29***−2.63 ± 0.26***
Family Pinaceae: log (Precipitation)0.08 ± 0.170.09 ± 0.15
Family Pinaceae: Wildfires−0.57 ± 0.12***−0.39 ± 0.10***
Family Pinaceae: Grazing0.24 ± 0.11*0.44 ± 0.10***
Family Pinaceae: Pests0.04 ± 0.160.22 ± 0.13
Family Pinaceae: Wood extractions0.22 ± 0.140.20 ± 0.12
Family Pinaceae: Land tenure Public0.98 ± 0.650.42 ± 0.65
Family Pinaceae: Land tenure Social0.09 ± 0.120.24 ± 0.11*
  1. Coefficient values are given relative to the reference level for each factor-type variable (Family = ‘Fagaceae’, Overstory = ‘Oak’, Land tenure = ‘Private’, and no/low disturbance level for all disturbance types), which implies that the estimate for the reference level of each factor is included in the intercept, and the coefficients for the additional (non-reference) factor levels indicate how they deviate from the overall intercept. The same applies to interactions with family: the coefficients corresponding to each of the other explanatory variables (without interaction) correspond to their estimated effect for Fagaceae (the reference level for family), whereas the bottom 11 rows show how this effect is modified for Pinaceae species. Conglomerate nested in state were included as random factors. Some variables were log- or square-root (sqrt) transformed to ensure normality, as indicated below. Significance codes: * 0.05 < P < 0.01; ** 0.01 < P < 0.001; *** P < 0.001