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Table 2 Considered ecological and silvicultural factors

From: Success factors for high-quality oak forest (Quercus robur, Q. petraea) regeneration

Ecological and silvicultural factorsData sourceData typeReferences
Ecological factorsCompetition by other tree speciesField inventorySee section “Data analysis in a three-step success model”Ammer and Dingel 1997; Wagner and Röker 2000; Ligot et al. 2013
Competitive vegetation (weeds, grass, bracken)Field inventoryNumericalHumphrey and Swaine 1997; Leonardsson et al. 2015; Jensen and Löf 2017
Shrub competition (bramble, raspberry)Field inventoryNumericalHarmer et al. 2005; Jensen and Löf 2017
Canopy layer cover (proxy for light availability)Field inventoryNumericalHauskeller-Bullerjahn 1997; Ostrogović et al. 2010
Water supply statusForest inventory databaseNominalHauskeller-Bullerjahn 1997; Schmidt 2000
Nutrient supply statusForest inventory databaseOrdinalHauskeller-Bullerjahn 1997; Schmidt 2000
Lowland or low mountain rangeForest inventory databaseBinaryLeuschner and Ellenberg 2017
Climate quotient Q (after Ellenberg)German Meteorological Service (DWD)NumericalLeuschner and Ellenberg 2017
Silvicultural factorsStand ageForest inventory databaseNumericalAnnighöfer et al. 2015
FencingField inventoryBinaryAnnighöfer et al. 2015; Leonardsson et al. 2015
Preceding land-use typeForest inventory databaseBinaryValtinat et al. 2008
Regeneration methodForest inventory database / field inventoryNominalBurckhardt 1870; Solymos 1993; Struck 1999; Drößler et al. 2012; Kohler et al. 2015
Stand sizeForest inventory databaseNumericalBřezina and Dobrovolný 2011
Site preparationField inventoryBinaryBurckhardt 1870; Löf et al. 2006
Tending of young growth / pre-commercial thinningField inventoryBinaryLeibundgut 1978