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Table 3 Parameters used to characterize the habitat structure of each of three types of forest habitats

From: Understory vegetation in planted pine forests governs bird community composition and diversity in the eastern Mediterranean region

Parameter No understory forest (n = 6) Dense forest (n = 8) Open forest (n = 6)
Average SD Average SD Average SD
Soil (cover percentage) 12.09% 11.47% 13.86% 9.09% 15.37% 14.54%
Low trees (cover percentage) 0 0 65.11% 98.14% 35.28% 45.97%
Shrubs (cover percentage) 0.73% 1.64% 119.49% 56.23% 111.92% 26.77%
Total vegetation (cover percentage) 12.83% 11.72% 198.46% 128.29% 162.57% 52.75%
Trees per ha 1100.00 412.31 1525.00 263.39 366.67 137.44
Average tree height (m) 18.57 1.91 17.25 2.34 16.66 2.02
Average tree volume (cm) 96.93 12.31 91.82 7.42 103.37 0.28%
Smilax aspera (cover percentage) 2.78% 4.47% 58.03% 34.61% 24.79% 39.17%
Asparagus aphyllus (cover percentage) 5.75% 12.75% 29.95% 34.93% 2.53% 2.10%
Pistacia lentiscus (cover percentage) 0.24% 0.54% 60.76% 48.29% 26.26% 28.50%
Rhamnus lycioides (cover percentage) 2.25% 3.88% 25.50% 22.16% 61.93% 43.06%