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Table 2 Bird diversity and abundance scores in the three types of forest habitat (all seasons pooled)

From: Understory vegetation in planted pine forests governs bird community composition and diversity in the eastern Mediterranean region

  Average abundance (per visit) Density (birds per ha) Chao index Expected richness Total number of individuals Visits
NF 4.2a 15.4 a 11.2 a 15.7 a 197 a 52
DF 11.6 b 38.2 b 16.9 b 20.5 b 658 b 72
OF 13.7 b 43.8 b 16.8 b 22.0 b 613 b 56
F 21.7 4 10.7 10.2 8.5  
df (degrees of freedom) 2 2 2 2 2  
p * < 0.001 < 0.03 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001  
  1. *One-way ANOVA (different letters above bars indicate significant differences, Bonferroni Multiple Comparison Test, p < 0.05)