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Table 1 The 44 unrecognized real trees or “cryptic trees”, i.e. usually with a shrubby form, occurring in the Mediterranean-European region, with indications about their distribution and ecology

From: What is a tree in the Mediterranean Basin hotspot? A critical analysis

Taxa Family Global distribution area Ecology
Alnus viridis (Chaix) DC. Betulaceae Arctico-Alpine Subalpine and oro-mediterranean scrublands
Buxus balearica Lam. Buxaceae SW Mediterranean, S Anatolia Scrublands on predominantly carbonate substrates
Buxus sempervirens L. Buxaceae Mediterranean-European Submediterranean scrublands
Chamaerops humilis L. Arecaceae CW Mediterranean Thermophilous scrublands, coastal scree and cliffs
Cotinus coggygria Scop. Anacardiaceae S European, Irano-Turanian Eumediterranean and submediterranean dry scrublands, warm and mesophilous habitats of southern exposure inland
Cotoneaster granatensis Boiss. Rosaceae Endemic to S Spain (Andalusia) Rocky matorrals, deciduous and pine forests
Crataegus azarolus L. Rosaceae E Mediterranean Open scrublands
Crataegus heldreichii Boiss. Rosaceae Balkan Open coniferous forests, mixed scrubs, dry rocky meadows
Crataegus laciniata Ucria Rosaceae CW Mediterranean Clearings of mountain woods
Crataegus laevigata (Poir.) DC. Rosaceae CW Mediterranean Mesophilic shingles and hedges of the hilly and mountainous vegetation belt, oak forests outside the flood, mountain beech forests
Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Rosaceae Mediterranean-European Coastal dry scrublands, Inland mesophilic shingles and hedges
Crataegus nevadensis K.I.Chr. Rosaceae Endemic of S Spain (Andalusia) Clearings and edges of mountain woods
Crataegus orientalis Pall. ex M.Bieb. Rosaceae E Mediterranean and SW Asia Rocky places in meadows and open woodlands
Crataegus pentagyna Willd. Rosaceae Balkan Open forest, mixed scrubs, dry rocky meadows
Crataegus pycnoloba Boiss & Heldr. Rosaceae Endemic of Greece (Peloponnese) Rocky limestone ridhes and slope, dry grassy plateau, scrubs and open Abies cephalonica forests
Cytisus aeolicus Guss. Fabaceae Endemic of Sicily (Aeolian Islands) Dry slopes and open scrublands on volcanic substrates
Erica arborea L. Ericaceae Mediterranean, Macaronesian, E. Africa, Sahara Thermophilous scrublands in non-carbonatic substrates
Fontanesia philliraeoides Labill. Oleaceae E Mediterranean Dry maquis
Frangula alnus Mill. Rhamnaceae C European, Mediterranean Riparian forests of alder and ash
Genista etnensis (Raf.) DC. Fabaceae Endemic of Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica Arborescent matorrals on non-carbonatic substrates
Genista tyrrhena Valsecchi Fabaceae Endemic of Sicily (Aeolian Islands) and Lazio (Pontian Islands) Arid volcanic slopes on rocky and sandy substrates
Juniperus communis L. Cupressaceae Eurasiatic Rocky meadows, mountain pastures, mesophilic hedges and shrubs, forests edges in submontane areas
Juniperus deltoides R.P.Adams Cupressaceae CE Mediterranean Open woodlands and scrublands on mid-altitudes
Juniperus navicularis Gand. Cupressaceae Endemic of SW Iberian Peninsula Arborescent matorral on maritime sands
Juniperus oxycedrus L. Cupressaceae Mediterranean-Pontic Eumediterranean and submediterranean dry areas in open forests and matorrals
Juniperus phoenicea L. Cupressaceae Mediterranean, Macaronesian, Red Sea Eumediterranean dry and warm areas in evergreen oak and pine forests, coastal matorrals
Myrica faya Aiton Myricaceae Macaronesia, S Portugal Underwood of pinewoods on siliceous
Myrtus communis L. Myrtaceae Mediterranean, Macaronesian, Irano-Turanian Thermophilous scrublands on non-carbonatic substrates, small swampy forest stands
Nerium oleander L. Apocynaceae Mediterranean, Sahara Thermophilous and temporary riverbeds, wet lowlands
Phillyrea angustifolia L. Oleaceae W Mediterranean Evergreen oak and alepo pine forests, dry and warm habitats often stony, matorrals
Phillyrea latifolia L. Oleaceae Mediterranean Evergreen oak and alepo pine forests, on dry and warm habitats often stony, matorrals
Pistacia lentiscus L. Anacardiaceae Mediterranean, Macaronesian, Evergreen oak forests and matorrals
Pistacia terebinthus L. Anacardiaceae Mediterranean, S European Evergreen oak forests and matorrals
Prunus mahaleb L. Rosaceae S European-Pontic Thermophilous forests of pubescent oak and matorrals
Quercus coccifera L. Fagaceae Mediterranean Evergreen oak forests and matorrals
Rhamnus alaternus L. Rhamnaceae Mediterranean Mixed evergreen and deciduous forests, matorrals dominated by evergreen oaks
Rhododendron ponticum L. Ericaceae S Iberian Peninsula, Lebanon, Pontic region Mixed woodlands in humid ravines on siliceous
Sambucus nigra L. Adoxaceae European-Caucasian Mesophilous underbrushs and hedges in hilly and mountains areas, deciduous forests
Searsia tripartita (Ucria) Moffett Anacardiaceae S Mediterranean, Sahara Open rocky matorrals in arid and desertic areas, temporary river banks
Spartium junceum L. Fabaceae Mediterranean, European Eumediterranean dry, warm and stony areas, often in more or less pure stands
Styrax officinalis L. Styracaceae CE Mediterranean Rocky and dry grasslands, thermophilous matorrals with evergreen oaks and alepo pine
Vitex agnus-castus L. Lamiaceae Mediterranean, Irano-Turanian Riverbeds, wet lowlands, thermophilous damp or floodes underbrushes
Zelkova abelicea (Lam.) Boiss. Ulmaceae Endemic of Crete Rocky slopes or flat valley bottoms in the mountains
Zelkova sicula Di Pasquale, Garfi & Quézel Ulmaceae Endemic of Sicily Scrublands on basaltic soil, riverbeds