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Table 1 Forest bird species of central Europe, and of the northeastern USA (National Audubon Society 2018), and a list of species that are used as indicator in Germany (Bundesamt für Naturschutz 2015). All available data and species were used

From: Positive association between forest management, environmental change, and forest bird abundance

Forest specialist bird species of central Europe Regionally-migrating bird species of central Europe Continentally-migrating forest birds of central Europe
Certhia brachydactyla Short-toed Treecreeper Carduelis spinus Eurasian Siskin Anthus trivialis Tree Pipit
Dendrocopos major Great Spotted Woodpecker Coccottraustes coccothraustes Hawfinch Ficedula hypoleuca Pied Flycatcher
Dendrocopos martius Black Woodpecker Columba oenas Stock Dove Phoenicurus phoenicurus Common Redstart
Dendrocopos medius Middle Spotted Woodpecker Parus ater Coal Tit Phylloscopus sibilatrix Wood Warbler
Dendrocopos minor Lesser Spotted Woodpecker Parus cristatus Crested Tit   
Garrulus glandarius Eurasian Jay Phylloscopus collybita Common Chiffchaff   
Parus caeruleusa Eurasian Blue Tit Regulus ignicapilla Firecrest   
Parus majora Great Tit Regulus regulus Goldcrest   
Parus palustris Marsh Tit Turdus viscivorus Mistle Thrush   
Picus canus Grey-headed Woodpecker     
Pyrrhula pyrrhula Bullfinch     
Sitta europea Eurasian Nuthatch     
Forest specialist bird species of the northeastern USA Bundesamt für Naturschutz indicator bird species   
Certhia americana Brown Creeper Aquila pomerina Lesser Spotted Eagle   
Cyanocitta cristata Blue Jay Ciconia nigra Black Stork   
Dryobates pubescens Downy Woodpecker Dryocopus martius Black Woodpecker   
Dryocopus pileatus Pileated Woodpecker Dryocopus medius Middle Spotted Woodpecker   
Leuconotopicus villosus Hairy Woodpecker Dryocopus minor Lesser Spotted Woodpecker   
Poecile atricapillatus Black-capped Chickadee Parus ater Coal Tit   
Regulus atrapa Golden-crowned Kinglet Parus montanus Willow Tit   
Sitta canadensis Red-breasted Nuthatch Parus palustris Marsh Tit   
Sitta carolinensis White-breasted Nuthatch Phylloscopus sibilatrix Wood Warbler   
Zonotrichia albicollis White-throated Sparrow Picus canus Grey-headed Woodpecker   
   Sitta europaea Eurasian Nuthatch   
  1. aindicates regionally migrating species with long-term observations (Berndt and Winkel 1979; Winkel 2002)