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Table 2 Aspects of structural diversity and references for publications, in which the ecological rationale for the relevance of the different aspects of structural diversity for forest biodiversity are provided; see also Sabatini et al. (2015). The right column refers to the number of variables that can be derived from the National Forest Inventory in relation to this aspect. The complete list of these 52 variables is provided in the Additional file 3. The aspects 'litter layer, 'microhabitats, 'tree spacing' and 'epiphytes and organisms on deadwood' could not be considered in this analysis because they were not sampled by the NFI. Some ‘microhabitats’ were only added to sampling during NFI2012, so they could not be taken into account for this work

From: Quantifying forest structural diversity based on large-scale inventory data: a new approach to support biodiversity monitoring

Aspect of structural diversity Acronym Authors Number of variables
Uneven-agedness UA Keeton (2006); Hatanaka et al. (2011) 7
Growing stock GS Houghton (2005); Norris et al. (2012); Hoover et al. (2012) 7
Compositional heterogeneity CH Barbier et al. (2008); Barbier et al. (2009); Burrascano et al. (2011); Hatanaka et al. (2011) 5
Vertical heterogeneity VH Staudhammer and LeMay (2001); Hao et al. (2007); Burrascano et al. (2013) 3
Large living trees LLT Nilsson et al. (2002); Brunialti et al. (2010); Persiani et al. (2010) 3
Deadwood standing DW st Brunialti et al. (2010); Hatanaka et al. (2011) 5
Deadwood downed DW d Castagneri et al. (2010); Lassauce et al. (2011); Zotti et al. (2013) 8
Deadwood decay classes DW DC Burrascano et al. (2008); Lassauce et al. (2011); Lombardi et al. (2011) 2
Bark diversity BD Bhadra et al. (2008); MacFarlane and Luo (2009); Michel et al. (2011) 1
Diversity of flowering and fruiting trees FD Singh and Kushwaha (2005) 1
Regeneration REG Hello (1985); Boyden et al. (2005); Müller et al. (2008) 10
Litter layer LL Barnett et al. (1978); Newsome and Catling (1979); Gilmore (1985) (for habitats of birds); Watson et al. (2001) 0
Microhabitats MH Dueser and Shugart (1978); Winter and Möller (2008); Michel et al. (2011); Bütler et al. (2013) 0
Tree spacing TS Spies and Franklin (1991); Pretzsch (1997); Acker et al. (1998); Bachofen and Zingg (2001) 0
Epiphytes and organisms on deadwood (lichen, mosses, fungi) DW G Humphrey et al. (2002); Blaser et al. (2013); Dittrich et al. (2014); Hoppe et al. (2016) 0