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Table 1 The ESs considered in this study and expert models for deriving their reference proxy values

From: Predicting the provisioning potential of forest ecosystem services using airborne laser scanning data and forest resource maps



Indicator, unit (citation)a

Stand-level forest attributes used as predictorsb



Index value based on expert opinion (Lehtomäki et al. 2015)1

Site fertility, growing stock volume, diameter, dominant species


Timber production

Soil expectation value (SEV), €∙ha− 1 (Pukkala 2005)2

Diameter, basal area, age, site fertility, species-specific growing stock volume, number of trees, operational environment (temperature, interest rate, timber prices)


Carbon storage

Estimated amount of carbon 3, t∙ha−1 (Karjalainen and Kellomäki 1996)

Growing stock volume


Suitability for bilberry picking

Index value based on expert opinion (Ihalainen et al. 2002)

Age, basal area, height, species-specific growing stock volume, site fertility


Suitability for cowberry picking

Index value based on expert opinion (Ihalainen et al. 2002)

Age, species-specific growing stock volume, diameter, site fertility


Visual amenity

Index value based on expert opinion (Pukkala et al. 1988)

Diameter, number of trees, species-specific growing stock volume, site fertility

  1. aWhen computing the values for the present study, the following details or exceptions compared to original publications were made:
  2. 1The index values are of form diameter × volume, scaled using dominant-species-specific transformation functions (Lehtomäki et al. 2015) and maximum values of forest attributes in the study area, and multiplied by site fertility specific weights (Lehtomäki et al. 2015).
  3. 2Values of operational environment related parameters were obtained as combinations of effective temperature sum fixed to 1300 degree days, interest rates of 1%–4% and saw-wood/pulpwood prices (units in €∙m−3) of 30/15, 30/25, 40/15, 40/25, 40/35, 50/25, and 50/35, and the SEV was obtained as an average of these 28 combinations weighted by the proportions of species. All values were adopted from the study by Pukkala (2005).
  4. 3The estimated carbon was obtained based on conversion factors from species-specific, total stem volumes to carbon contents.
  5. bTo standardize the computation based on all data sets, the following simplifications or groupings were used:
  6. -Species groups: pine, spruce, deciduous trees.
  7. -‘Diameter’ always referred to the basal-area weighted mean diameter.