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Table 1 Comparison of the main features of forests and forestry, and the condition of young and old forest successional stages, in north-eastern Canada and Fennoscandia

From: Young and old forest in the boreal: critical stages of ecosystem dynamics and management under global change

  North-eastern Canada Fennoscandia
Type of management Extensive Intensive
 Type of forest harvested Cutting natural forest and moving towards north. In certain regions starting to harvest second growth forests Cutting mostly second growth as forest mostly managed. Some natural forest still harvested
 Dominant management type Even-aged management with clearcutting and advance regeneration protection Even-aged management with clearcutting followed by planting with native species
 Protected productive forest <  8% (Andrew et al. 2014) <  6% (regionally highly variable)
 Cutting rotation vs natural disturbance (fire) cycle Rotation 60–90 years for Black spruce forests; fire cycle 90–300 years Rotation 60–120 depending on site type and geographic location; fire cycle 60–300+ years (currently fires practically excluded by suppression)
Old forest
 Quantity Decreased but still remain in large patches in certain regions Amount collapsed but some larger patches remain in northern protected less productive areas
 Quality Partly natural, in northern less productive areas Partly natural, in northern protected less productive areas
 Dead wood amounts 17–160 m3∙ha−1 in natural vs. 10–153 m3∙ha− 1 in managed forests 60–120 m3∙ha− 1 in natural vs. 4–10 m3∙ha− 1 in managed forests
 Threats Cuttings, climate change, increasing disturbances Cuttings, climate change, increasing disturbances
Young forest
 Quantity Increased Increased substantially
 Quality Natural regeneration after clearcut harvesting in parts Mostly soil scarification and planting after clearcutting, thinning of young forest, scarcity of dead wood.
 Management practises Natural regeneration after natural disturbances in parts Retention trees left on clearcuts, natural young forests practically lacking
 Threats Increasing amount of salvage logging after natural disturbance, regeneration failure Increasing harvesting of all biomass components, regeneration failure