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Table 2 Site conditions and forest structural characteristics of the three conservation zones. Numbers are means and standard deviations, with 40 initial random plots per zone

From: Fujian cypress and two other threatened tree species in three conservation zones of a nature reserve in north-western Vietnam

  Core zone Buffer zone Restoration zone
Total study area (ha) 72.8 115.1 21.6
Elevation (m a.s.l.) 1449.1 ± 62.6a 1363.3 ± 86.7b 1465.5 ± 91.0a
Slope inclination (degrees) 39.5 ± 7.7a 35.9 ± 5.4b 35.6 ± 5.9b
Soil pH 4.7 ± 0.4a 4.7 ± 0.4a 4.8 ± 0.2a
Tree density (trees≥6cm; trees∙ha−1) 925 ± 251a 1006 ± 357a 1660 ± 387b
DBH (trees≥6cm; cm) 21.4 ± 3.4a 16.6 ± 3.0b 12.8 ± 1.4c
Basal area (trees≥6cm; m2∙ha−1) 52.9 ± 21.4a 30.4 ± 15.4b 24.8 ± 5.9c
Canopy closure (%) 88.4 ± 7.2a 84.5 ± 9.4b 81.3 ± 6.4c
Observed species richness (trees≥6cm, sp. per 40 plots) 193 173 135
Mean species richness (trees≥6cm, sp. per plot) 22.1 ± 5.1a 19.3 ± 5.9b 16.8 ± 5.0c
Observed red-listed species richness (trees≥6cm, sp. per 40 plots) 16 10 5
Stumps (no. per plot) 0.6 ± 0.8a 1.6 ± 1.6 b 1.7 ± 1.4b
Footpaths (no. per plot) 0.9 ± 0.6a 1.5 ± 0.8b 1.1 ± 0.9a,b
  1. Significant differences in the means of three conservation zones at the level of p ≤ 0.05 were indicated in different superscript letters