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Table 1 Key climatic characteristics for each of the major bioclimatic divisions represented in the study area

From: Tree diversity patterns along the latitudinal gradient in the northwestern Russia

Landscape Average annual temperature Max warm month temperature Min cold month temperature Annual precipitation Summer precipitation Winter precipitation
Forest-tundra 0.1 14.6 −13.6 344 126 38
North taiga 0.2 16.2 −15.3 523 161 67
Middle taiga 3.6 20.1 −11.4 751 197 108
South taiga 3.7 20.3 −10.5 752 211 107
Hemiboreal 6.4 21.6 −7.0 788 222 116
  1. The provided values are based on the results of temporal averaging and spatial interpolation within the landscape subdivisions of long term (19302010) observations from 25 meteorological stations located in the study area