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Fig. 5 | Forest Ecosystems

Fig. 5

From: Toward managing mixed-species stands: from parametrization to prescription

Fig. 5

Regulation of inter-specific competition by spatial separation of tree species. The stronger the inter-specific competition between the species, the more contiguous a growing space is required for the establishment and development of a species in a mixed stand. Inter-specific competition can be reduced by mixing of three species (represented by Δ, , O) in (from left to right) individual tree mixture, rows, groups, clusters, or separate stands (modified after Bauhus et al. (2017a, b)

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