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Table 1 Indicators categorized in dimensions, examples of units, inter-linkages to other aspects and/or indicators of sustainability and possible data sources

From: Indicators and tools for assessing sustainability impacts of the forest bioeconomy

Indicator Dimension Indicator unit(s) (in example) Strong indicator interlinkages Other major connections Main data and/or cofactor sources
Greenhouse gases (GHG) Environmental tCO2eq, GWP Fossil fuel use Biodiversity National statistics
Fossil fuel use Environmental tons, % - of all fuels GHG, trade, national self-reliance Renewable energy National statistics, industry
Fine particle emission Environmental particle sizes >10, 1–10 and < 1 μm Fossil fuel use Health Industry, literature, derivable from other indicators
Water contamination Environmental m3   Ecosystem services, fossil fuel use Industry
Land use and land use change Environmental ha Biodiversity (indirect) GHG National statistics, Industry (e.g. wood use)
Biodiversity Environmental Area protected/area used, species richness,   Harvested forest area Experts, industry
Gross domestic production (GDP) Economic €, %-change in GDP GVA/LVA   National statistics
Gross and/or local value added (G/LVA) Economic € added to product per m3 wood used GDP, Trade Rural development Industry, (Inter)National statistics
Trade Economic Import/export change GDP, G/LVA, National supply security and self-reliance National self-reliance National statistics
National supply security and self-reliance Social Import/Total energy use Fossil fuel use, Trade   National statistics, industry
Employment Social Person years Accidents, salaries Capacity and freedom, well-being National statistics, industry
Human health and well-being Social N/A Fine particle emissions Accidents and work related diseases, social costs. Questionnaires, industrial accounting.
Accidents and work related diseases Social Person days-off/working days Employment   National statistics, industry, Insurance institutions
Equity Social Paid salaries, Gini-index Employment Reflections to health and Capacity and freedom National statistics, industry
Capacity and freedom   Disposable income, Free time Participation Rural development Questionnaires
Participation Social Number of participants, Number of hearings Capacity and freedom Equity Public documentation
Rural development Social Rural/urban jobs Employment Equity and Capacity and freedom National statistics, Industry