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Table 2 List of species that are unpalatable and grazing tolerant to deer in study area

From: Response of understory vegetation over 10 years after thinning in an old-growth cedar and cypress plantation overgrazed by sika deer in eastern Japan

Type Species name Family name Life form References
Unpalatable Dennstaedtia hirsuta Dennstaedtiaceae perennial 1
Dennstaedtia wilfordii Dennstaedtiaceae perennial 6
Stegnogramma pozoi subsp. mollissima Thelypteridaceae perennial 1
Chloranthus serratus Chloranthaceae perennial 1, 5
Arisaema spp. Araceae perennial 1, 5
Arisaema angustatum Araceae perennial 1, 5
Arisaema nikoense Araceae perennial 1, 5
Cocculus trilobus Menispermaceae vine 1
Boenninghausenia albiflora var. japonica Rutaceae perennial 1, 5
Pterostyrax hispida Styracaceae tree 4, 5
Cynoglossum asperrimum Boraginaceae perennial 1
Cynanchum caudatum var. tanzawamontanum Apocynaceae vine 6
Trachelospermum asiaticum Apocynaceae vine 6
Tubocapsicum anomalum Solanaceae perennial 1
Crassocephalum crepidioides Asteraceae perennial 1
Aster ageratoides var. ageratoides Asteraceae perennial 3
Ligularia dentata Asteraceae perennial 2, 5
Grazing-tolerant Brachypodium sylvaticum Poaceae perennial 5
Calamagrostis hakonensis Poaceae perennial 5
Festuca parvigluma Poaceae perennial 5
Oplismenus undulatifolius Poaceae perennial 5
Microstegium japonicum Poaceae Annual 5
Microstegium vimineum Poaceae Annual 5
Sasa hayatae Poaceae bamboo 6
Persicaria debilis Polygonaceae Annual 5
Persicaria longiseta Polygonaceae Annual 6
Persicaria nepalensis Polygonaceae Annual 6
Persicaria posumbu Polygonaceae Annual 5
Pilea hamaoi Urticaceae Annual 5
Pilea japonica Urticaceae Annual 5
Clinopodium micranthum var. micranthum Lamiaceae perennial 6
Hydrocotyle yabei var. yabei Apiaceae perennial 5
Cirsium tenuipedunculatum Asteraceae perennial 6
  1. 1, Takatsuki (1989); 2, Hasegawa (2000); 3, Nomiya et al. (2003); 4, Ninomiya and Furubayashi (2003); 5, Tamura and Katsuyama (2007); 6, Tamura (personal observation)