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Fig. 1 | Forest Ecosystems

Fig. 1

From: Response of understory vegetation over 10 years after thinning in an old-growth cedar and cypress plantation overgrazed by sika deer in eastern Japan

Fig. 1

Changes in light conditions and understory vegetation before and 10 or 11 years after thinning. Three different levels of vegetation cover were used: 1%, sparse cover (US); 30%, moderate cover (MM); 80%, dense cover (LD). a rPPFD, b understory vegetation cover, c understory biomass, d species richness, and e Shannon’s diversity index (H′); in, within the exclosure; out, outside the exclosure. * denotes the value obtained from a 10 × 10-m2 plot and not a 2 × 2-m2 quadrat. Error bars indicate SD

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