Skip to main content


Springer Nature is making Coronavirus research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Table 2 Description of specific cost information

From: Life cycle cost and economic assessment of biochar-based bioenergy production and biochar land application in Northwestern Ontario, Canada

Variable Description Source
Total life cycle cost (LCC) LCC t  = MSC t  + FCC t  + TC t  + SPC t  + PC t  + LAC t This study
Machine and Setup Cost (MSC) • Planning—Feasibility study
• Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and development services
• Detailed Engineering Design
• Industry renewal fee
• Plant site Construction costs and maintenance in every 5 years.
• Equipment base price and delivery
• Plant Set Up and maintenance
MOECC 2015; PowerMax 2015, Pers. Comm.
Feedstock Collection Cost (FCC) • Forest Harvest Residue (FHR)
• FHR-Labor—and related
• Saw Mill Residue (SMR)
• SMR-Labor- and related
• Underutilized trees (UTS)
• UTS-Labor- and related
AAFC 2008; Gautam et al. 2010, Pers. Comm. with harvesters; Upadhyay et al. 2012
Transportation Cost (TC) • Feedstock Transportation to Storage
• Transportation from storage to Pyrolysis Facility
• Biochar Transportation to Land
• Bio-oil Syngas Transportation to market
AAFC 2008; Alam et al. 2012, Pers. Comm.
Storage/Processing Cost (SPC) • Storage
• Grinding/Pelletization Cost
AAFC 2008; WPAC 2013, Pers. Comm.
Pyrolysis Cost (PC) • Cost of plant operation
• Skilled labour/ Product Testing
• Pyrolyzed Products storage
NREL 2010; IRENA 2012
Land Application Cost (LAC) • Material handling, tractor and fuel costs
• Transportation and skilled labour costs
• Other incidental cost (2 %)
Pers. Comm. with independent applicators