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Table 1 Physical environment and woodland characteristics in the study area as determined for the sample plots (n = 1230). Climate data were derived from WorldClim (Hijmans et al. 2005) and CRUTS (Harris et al. 2013)

From: Patterns of forest composition and their long term environmental drivers in the tropical dry forest transition zone of southern Africa

  Minimum Maximum Mean SD
Latitude −19.09 −17.49 −18.10 −0.18
Longitude 18.45 20.45 19.65 0.60
Altitude (m) 1077 1173 1127 21
Sand fraction in topsoil (%) 52 95 94 4
Annual rainfall (mm) 531 625 564 15
Minimum temperature coldest month (°C) 5.8 7.5 6.3 0.6
Maximum temperature warmest month (°C) 34.0 34.6 34.2 0.1
Frost (days · year−1) 8 11 10 1
Maximum tree diameter at breast height (cm) 20 189 49 20
Basal area all trees (m2 · ha−1) 0.3 22.3 4.7 2.5
Stem density (ha−1) 7 493 112 59
  1. SD standard deviation