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Table 1 Comparison of the properties of the different proposed conceptual models of forest dynamics and the comprehensive model proposed in this paper

From: Conceptual models of forest dynamics in environmental education and management: keep it as simple as possible, but no simpler

Conceptual model Temporal representation Spatial representation Cross-scale interactions Transitions between modes of forest dynamics
Classical directional model Directional Unspecified (stand) Not considered Not considered
Large vs. small cycle model Directional and cyclic Large and small scale Not considered Considered
Mosaic cycle model Cyclic Patch/stand scale Not considered Not considered
Panarchy Cyclic Multiple scales Considered Not considered
Comprehensive model Directional and cyclic Multiple scales Considered Considered
  1. References for the models: Classical directional model: Clements (1916), Begon et al. (2006). Large vs. small cycle model: Sirén (1955), Seymour et al. (2002). Mosaic cycle model: Remmert (1991). Panarchy: Holling (2001). Comprehensive model: Kuuluvainen (2009)