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Table 1 Values of input and output variables in the forest holding of Central Finland when NPV is maximized with 2 % discount rate, and the symbols of weights and slack variables used in the DEA model

From: Which type of forest management provides most ecosystem services?

Variable Weight Slack RFM CCF AAF Unit
Inputs
 • Growing stock volume v 1 w 1 38.14 38.14 38.14 1000 m3
 • Silvicultural costsa v 2 w 2 153.85 0 12.54 1000 €/30 years
Outputs
 • Net present value u 1 s 1 1.60 1.76 1.78 million €
 • Harvested volume u 2 s 2 25.22 35.30 36.30 1000 m3/30 years
 • Carbon balance u 3 s 3 8.52 8.37 7.93 Mg/30 years
 • Scenic beauty index u 4 s 4 5.16 5.82 5.56 30-year average
 • Annual berry yield u 5 s 5 34.53 38.73 37.90 kg/ha, 30-year average
 • Habitat area u 6 s 6 165.33 199.93 186.0 ha, 30-year average
  1. aTimber sales are based on stumpage value. There are no harvesting cost to forest landowner
  2. RFM rotation forest management, CCF continuous cover forestry, AAF any-aged forest management