Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of the landscape attributes in the Reinhardswald and the Kellerwald-Edersee National Park, given for the whole study areas and the charcoal kiln sites, respectively

From: Charcoal kiln sites, associated landscape attributes and historic forest conditions: DTM-based investigations in Hesse (Germany)

  Reinhardswald Kellerwald-Edersee National Park  
Total area Kiln sites Total area Kiln sites
Water supply status   n = 2576   n = 1297  
 Dry 0.1 0 1.8 0 %
 Moderately dry 0.6 0.4 24.6 11.5 %
 Moderately fresh 9.9 8.9 47.4 42.3 %
 Fresh 48.7 56.8 18.4 29.8 %
 Markedly fresh 14.2 25.7 5.7 12.9 %
 Periodically moist 22.7 6.4 0.1 0.2 %
 Moist 1.0 1.2 1.7 3.2 %
 Moderately wet 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 %
 Wet 2.4 0.3 0 0 %
  p < 0.001*** p < 0.001***  
Nutrient supply status   n = 2602   n = 1297  
 Oligotrophic 1.7 0.2 0.2 0 %
 Slightly mesotrophic 3.6 1.2 0.1 0 %
 Mesotrophic 93.1 96.3 93.1 93.1 %
 Distinctly mesotrophic 0.7 0.8 4.5 3.6 %
 Slightly eutrophic 0.1 0 0.3 0.2 %
 Eutrophic 0.8 1.5 1.9 3.1 %
  p < 0.001*** p < 0.01**  
Soil complex classes   n = 2626   n = 1308  
 Colluvial soils 3.1 6.1 0 0 %
 Acidic brown soils 34.1 51.6 87.6 79.4 %
 Pseudogleys 54.7 38.1 7.4 12.8 %
 Stagnogleys and fen soils 4.7 1.2 0 0 %
 Gleys 3.3 2.9 5.0 7.9 %
  p < 0.001*** p < 0.001***  
Altitude   n = 2626   n = 1308  
 < 200 m 9.6 14.8 0 0 %
 < 300 m 42.4 47.1 5.9 3.7 %
 < 400 m 41.0 35.8 32.1 27.2 %
 < 500 m 7.0 2.2 47.0 49.3 %
 > 500 m 0 0 15.1 19.8 %
  p < 0.001*** p < 0.01**  
Exposition   n = 2626   n = 1308  
 E 12.3 17.1 13.5 15.6 %
 NE 13.6 20.1 13.4 17.5 %
 N 12.4 12.0 13.4 17.1 %
 NW 11.6 7.1 15.3 15.5 %
 W 15.1 8.4 11.6 9.1 %
 SW 15.1 12.5 8.6 5.5 %
 S 10.0 10.1 10.5 7.8 %
 SE 9.8 12.7 13.3 11.9 %
  p < 0.001*** p < 0.001***  
Inclination   n = 2626   n = 1308  
 < 5° 40.5 14.7 11.1 9.2 %
 < 10° 33.2 34.7 20.2 22.6 %
 < 20° 19.3 40.4 37.5 48.5 %
 < 30° 5.4 8.6 24.6 17.2 %
 < 40° 1.5 1.4 6.0 2.4 %
 < 50° 0.3 0.2 0.6 0.2 %
 ≥ 50° 0 0 0.1 0 %
  p < 0.001*** p < 0.001***  
Tree species composition   n = 2607   n = 1186  
Fagus sylvatica 39.7 73.2 66.1 79.1 %
Picea abies 34.4 11.2 13.2 14.0 %
Quercus spp. 17.0 9.7 6.8 3.7 %
Larix decidua 4.2 2.8 1.9 1.3 %
Pinus sylvestris 0.9 0.9 4.2 0.3 %
Pseudotsuga menziesii 0.7 0.4 1.3 0.2 %
 other tree species and open land 2.9 1.8 6.4 1.5 %
  p < 0.001*** p < 0.001***