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Table 1 Characteristics of Norway spruce trees and site parameters from the first cycle of all state forest enterprise inventories in Lower Saxony. 29 324 Norway spruce trees from 23 145 sample plots were observed

From: Incorporating shape constraints in generalized additive modelling of the height-diameter relationship for Norway spruce

  Min 25 % qu. Median 75 % qu. Max
Tree height [m] 3.7 14.6 21.8 27 47.3
dbh [cm] 7 16.8 30.5 37.9 104
Tree age [years] 20 41 54 77 199
Altitude [m] 0 90 307 475.2 947
Sum of topographic exposure indices [° × 1000] (DTM 90 m × 90 m resolution) –84 560 –3108 1489 8135 89 208
Temperature sum during the vegetation period [°C] 833.6 1716.4 1996.6 2196.5 2456.8
Aridity index 24.8 37 44.8 54.6 87.5