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Table 9 Mean ± SE percent occurrence in spring–autumn diets of elk and cattle by forage class, 2004–2006

From: Herbivory of sympatric elk and cattle on Lincoln National Forest, south-central New Mexico

Class Species Elk Cattle
2004 2005 2006 Mean 2004 2005 2006 Mean
Shrubs Acer glabrum leaf 3.2 1.5 1.0 1.9 ± 0.7 0
Holodiscus dumosis, leaf 2.3 0.5 0.3 1.1 ± 0.6 0
Quercus spp. leaf 24.8 30.6 20.2 25.2 ± 3.0 6.5 2.9 9.3 6.2 ± 1.9
Salix spp. leaf 17.4 13.9 7.1 12.8 ± 3.0 0
Salix spp. stem 1.9 0.9 1.7 1.5 ± 0.3 0
Symphoricarpos rotundifolius leaf 2.4 0.7 0.8 1.3 ± 0.5 0
TOTAL 55.2 51.5 34.2 46.9 ± 6.5A 7.4 4.3 10.7 7.5 ± 1.8B
Conifer TOTAL 0.2 1.1 1.1 0.8 ± 0.3 0.1 0.4 0.5 0.3 ± 0.1
Forbs Achillea millefolium 0.8 1.1 1.7 1.2 ± 0.3 0.8 1.8 1.8 1.5 ± 0.3
Erigeron spp. 1.8 1.4 0.7 1.3 ± 0.3 0.1 ± 0.1
Geranium spp. 1.7 1.0 0.5 1.0 ± 0.3 0.6 ± 0.4
TOTAL 8.2 11.5 7.8 9.1 ± 1.2A 6.5 6.5 6.8 6.6 ± 0.1B
Grass Agropyron spp. 1.6 0.7 1.8 1.4 ± 0.3 17.2 12.1 11.5 13.6 ± 1.8
Agrostis spp. 0.7 ± 0.5 5.4 4.9 5.4 5.2 ± 0.2
Bouteloua spp. 0 4.3 1.8 1.0 2.4 ± 1.0
Bromus spp. 5.1 7.3 13.6 8.7 ± 2.5 5.6 8.4 6.9 6.9 ± 0.8
Dactylis glomerata - - 0.8 ± 0.2 0.8 1.2 1.3 1.1 ± 0.2
Agropyron trachycaulum 0.0 0.9 3.7 1.5 ± 1.1 0.7 ± 0.1
Muhlenbergia spp. 0.9 ± 0.2 7.3 3.9 5.0 5.4 ± 1.0
Oryzopsis spp. 0 2.2 0.5 0.7 1.1 ± 0.5
Poa fendleriana 1.9 1.7 0.4 1.3 ± 0.5
Poa pratensis 21.2 30.7 29.2 27.0 ± 3.0
Poa spp. 20.4 16.7 24.1 20.4 ± 2.1 23.1 32.4 29.6 28.3 ± 2.8
Stipa spp. 1.6 0.6 1.2 1.1 ± 0.3 5.6 7.5 7.0 6.7 ± 0.6
TOTAL 32.2 29.8 49.5 37.2 ± 6.2A 75.0 77.1 72.2 74.8 ± 1.4B
Sedge/Rush Carex spp. 4.3 4.9 5.7 5.0 ± 0.4 10.6 10.3 7.6 9.5 ± 0.9
TOTAL 4.3 4.9 5.7 5.0 ± 0.4A 10.9 11.5 9.6 10.6 ± 0.6B
  1. Also presented are species comprising > 1.0 % of either elk or cattle diets averaged over years
  2. Class TOTALS not sharing a letter differ between species (P > 0.90)