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Table 4 Characteristics of selected control variables defining the three silvicultural management strategies reference, biodiversity and climate protection and the according nature conservation rule sets

From: Assessing risks and uncertainties in forest dynamics under different management scenarios and climate change

  Control variable Reference Biodiversity Climate protection
Nature conservation Unmanaged area Status quo 5% of forest area Status quo
Area under flora-fauna-habitat (FFH) directive 45% of the FFH-area as natural habitat type 100% of the FFH-area as natural habitat type 45% of the FFH-area as natural habitat type
Deadwood (m3∙ha−1) 20 40 20
Habitat tress (N∙ha−1) 3 10 3
Species conversion Selection of future stand type Dominating deciduous species Tree species of potential natural vegetation (pnv) Dominating conifer species
Thinning Thinning intensity Variable over time: high, moderate, low Moderate Variable over time: high, moderate, low
Thinning type Thinning from above Thinning from above Thinning from above
Start of thinning (defined by stand height) 12–16 m 12–16 m 11–15 m
Limit of thinned volume per cut (m3∙ha−1) Max 70 (Douglas-fir max 100) Max 50 (Douglas-fir max 100) Max 70 (Douglas-fir max 100)
Harvest Target diameter (cm) Oak 70, beech 60, spruce 45, pine 45, Douglas-fir 70 All species +5 cm, in FFH-areas +10 cm except spruce –5 cm, Douglas-fir –10 cm All species –5 cm
Limit of harvested volume per cut (m3∙ha−1) Max 100 (Douglas-fir max 120) Max 70 (max 100 for all species not included in pnv) Max 100 (Douglas-fir max 120)