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Figure 2 | Forest Ecosystems

Figure 2

From: Silvicultural alternatives to conventional even-aged forest management - what limits global adoption?

Figure 2

Examples of alternative silvicultural practices in different locations. (a) Ethiopia, natural regeneration of Juniperus escelsa in gaps, (b) Chile, recent restoration thinning in second growth Nothofagus dombeyi forests in Llancahue, (c) Japan, single tree cutting in natural Quercus crispula forest with Abies sachalinensis regeneration, (d) Germany, single-tree selection in mixed-species (Abies, Picea, Fagus) mountain forests, (e) Australia, aggregated retention in Eucalyptus forests in Tasmania, (f) Canada, removal of overstory Populus tremuloides to release and favor establishment of Abies and Picea species (g) England, silvicultural development in species-enriched Pinus and Larix plantations, (h) USA, variable density thinning with gaps and leave islands in Douglas-fir stands in Oregon, and (i) and (j) southern China, Eucalyptus overstory with Pinus underplanted between Eucalyptus sprouts and dominant Pinus overstory with Quercus griffithii and Castanopsis hystrix understory, respectively. Photo credit for (f) Philippe Duval, all other photos by the authors.

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