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Table 3 Floristic composition and phytosociology of the woody layer (individuals ≥ 10 cm girth) of ‘Khasi hill sal’ forest of Meghalaya

From: Patterns of species dominance, diversity and dispersion in ‘Khasi hill sal’ forest ecosystem in northeast India

Species Family Growth form Occurrence Density (ha−1) Basal area (cm2 · ha−1) IVI Variance-to-mean ratio Dispersion
1. Shorea robusta Gaertn. Dipterocarpaceae LT 73 197.3 40328.4 58.249 25.9 C
2. Schima wallichii Choisy Theaceae LT 93 133.3 34757.6 48.205 3.5 C
3. Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon Pinaceae LT 32 50.8 21452.8 23.293 8.7 C
4. Careya arborea Roxb. Lecythidaceae MT 55 40.6 6505.7 14.549 2.3 C
5. Callicarpa arborea Roxb. Lamiaceae MT 56 21.9 2291.1 9.519 0.9 U
6. Semecarpus anacardium L.f. Anacardiaceae MT 39 26.0 2589.6 8.658 1.2 C
7. Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels Myrtaceae LT 44 17.3 3367.6 8.492 0.8 U
8. Aporosa octandra var. octandra Phyllanthaceae ST 37 18.1 2291.9 7.255 1.9 C
9. Phyllanthus emblica L. Phyllanthaceae ST 39 18.3 840.6 6.538 0.7 U
10. Lagerstroemia parviflora Roxb. Lythraceae MT 35 14.6 1068.5 5.836 0.8 U
11. Castanopsis lanceifolia (Oerst.) Hickel & A.Camus Fagaceae LT 22 8.7 3289.8 5.272 1.4 C
12. Vitex peduncularis Wall. ex Schauer Lamiaceae LT 24 12.1 2112.9 5.157 2.0 C
13. Engelhardtia spicata Lechen ex Blume Juglandaceae LT 29 13.3 1094.9 5.121 1.5 C
14. Erythrina stricta Roxb. Leguminosae MT 12 6.7 4082.1 4.599 1.3 C
15. Croton joufra Roxb. Euphorbiaceae MT 21 11.9 1496.3 4.459 0.8 U
16. Sterculia villosa Roxb. Malvaceae MT 22 5.6 1104.1 3.475 0.3 U
17. Catunaregam spinosa (Thunb.) Tirveng. Rubiaceae ST 17 10.6 522.2 3.290 1.3 C
18. Casearia glomerata Roxb. Salicaceae MT 18 9.8 426.0 3.221 3.1 C
19. Albizia chinensis (Osbeck) Merr. Leguminosae LT 18 4.4 1361.2 3.117 0.3 U
20. Syzygium nervosum A.Cunn. ex DC. Myrtaceae MT 17 8.8 599.9 3.114 1.1 C
21. Ziziphus rugosa Lam. Rhamnaceae SS 18 8.1 377.9 2.965 2.4 C
22. Castanopsis purpurella (Miq.) N. P. Balakr. Fagaceae LT 10 3.1 2483.6 2.916 0.2 U
23. Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.) Merr. Anacardiaceae MT 14 5.4 1295.9 2.829 1.3 C
24. Saurauia roxburghii Wall. Actinidiaceae ST 12 9.0 838.9 2.828 3.9 C
25. Litsea monopetala (Roxb.) Pers. Lauraceae MT 16 6.3 779.0 2.810 0.8 U
26. Pavetta indica L. Rubiaceae ST 17 7.5 204.2 2.686 1.5 C
27. Castanopsis armata (Roxb.) Spach Fagaceae MT 8 3.5 1600.4 2.216 0.5 U
28. Trema orientalis (L.) Blume Cannabaceae MT 4 10.6 524.1 2.084 8.8 C
29. Macaranga denticulata (Blume) Müll.Arg. Euphorbiaceae MT 11 4.4 470.2 1.898 1.5 C
30. Gmelina arborea Roxb. Lamiaceae MT 9 2.5 883.1 1.726 0.2 U
31. Eurya acuminata DC. Pentaphylacaceae ST 11 4.0 175.4 1.660 0.7 U
32. Holarrhena pubescens Wall. Apocynaceae ST 10 3.7 275.2 1.580 0.5 U
33. Castanopsis tribuloides (Sm.) A.DC. Fagaceae MT 7 1.9 1027.6 1.557 0.2 U
34. Leea asiatica (L.) Ridsdale Vitaceae SH 11 3.3 80.4 1.499 0.4 U
35. Garuga pinnata Roxb. Burseraceae LT 7 2.5 817.5 1.498 0.6 U
36. Ficus hispida L. f. Moraceae ST 9 2.1 409.5 1.373 0.2 U
37. Dalbergia stipulacea Roxb. Leguminosae WC 8 3.3 256.5 1.333 0.9 U
38. Premna mollissima Roth Lamiaceae MT 4 2.5 945.9 1.301 1.3 C
39. Symplocos khasiana Brand Symplocaceae ST 7 3.3 261.8 1.243 0.7 U
40. Bridelia retusa (L.) A. Juss. Phyllanthaceae MT 9 2.3 158.8 1.238 0.4 U
41. Ilex umbellulata (Wall.) Loes. Aquifoliaceae ST 6 2.3 201.7 0.987 1.4 C
42. Wendlandia tinctoria (Roxb.) DC. Rubiaceae ST 6 2.1 135.6 0.919 0.3 U
43. Lithocarpus elegans (Blume) Hatus. ex Soepadmo Fagaceae LT 5 1.2 223.7 0.757 0.2 U
44. Smilax zeylanica L. Smilacaceae SS 5 1.9 19.3 0.727 0.8 U
45. Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz Bignoniaceae ST 5 1.2 150.5 0.711 0.2 U
46. Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. Moraceae MT 1 0.2 918.2 0.705   O
47. Mangifera indica L. Anacardiaceae LT 3 0.6 537.6 0.697 0.0 U
48. Acacia pennata (L.) Willd. Leguminosae SS 4 1.7 116.8 0.672 0.4 U
49. Stereospermum chelonoides (L. f.) DC. Bignoniaceae LT 3 0.6 497.1 0.671 0.0 U
50. Elaeocarpus floribundus Blume Elaeocarpaceae LT 2 1.0 558.4 0.668 1.8 C
51. Wendlandia puberula DC. Rubiaceae ST 4 1.5 122.2 0.650 0.3 U
52. ML077T21 Meliaceae MT 4 1.0 226.5 0.641 0.2 U
53. Ficus curtipes Corner Moraceae LT 2 0.4 605.4 0.623 0.0 U
54. Kydia calycina Roxb. Malvaceae MT 5 1.0 51.6 0.622 0.0 U
55. Toona ciliata M.Roem. Meliaceae LT 4 1.2 131.2 0.606 0.2 U
56. Bombax ceiba L. Malvaceae LT 3 0.6 390.4 0.603 0.0 U
57. Ficus racemosa L. Moraceae LT 1 0.2 720.3 0.578   O
58. Grewia eriocarpa Juss. Malvaceae ST 3 0.6 333.3 0.567 0.0 U
59. Ficus hirta Vahl Moraceae ST 3 1.5 132.0 0.563 3.1 C
60. Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb. Moraceae LT 3 0.8 256.8 0.543 0.3 U
61. Ficus sp.2 Moraceae MT 1 0.2 662.4 0.541   O
62. Litsea glutinosa var. glutinos a Lauraceae ST 4 1.0 57.4 0.533 0.2 U
63. Dillenia pentagyna Roxb. Dilleniaceae LT 3 0.8 225.4 0.523 0.3 U
64. Albizia odoratissima (L. f.) Benth. Leguminosae LT 4 0.8 36.8 0.495 0.0 U
65. ML044T18 Sapindaceae MT 2 1.2 245.7 0.493 0.0 U
66. Glochidion coccineum (Buch.-Ham.) Müll.Arg. Phyllanthaceae ST 2 1.2 234.1 0.486 0.0 U
67. Antidesma bunius (L.) Spreng. Phyllanthaceae ST 2 0.4 374.3 0.475 0.0 U
68. Archidendron bigeminum (L.) I.C.Nielsen Leguminosae ST 3 0.8 86.7 0.434 0.3 U
69. Syzygium tetragonum (Wight) Wall. ex Walp. Myrtaceae MT 3 0.6 113.7 0.426 0.0 U
70. Olea salicifolia Wall. ex G.Don Oleaceae ST 3 0.8 63.2 0.419 0.3 U
71. Bridelia tomentosa Blume Phyllanthaceae ST 3 0.6 40.9 0.380 0.0 U
72. Caryota obtusa Griff. Arecaceae MT 1 0.4 343.9 0.363   O
73. Itea macrophylla Wall. Iteaceae ST 2 0.6 143.9 0.353 0.3 U
74. Entada rheedii Spreng. Leguminosae WC 2 0.4 148.6 0.331 0.0 U
75. Acronychia pedunculata (L.) Miq. Rutaceae ST 2 0.6 95.9 0.322 0.3 U
76. Ficus fistulosa Reinw. ex Blume Moraceae ST 2 0.8 40.3 0.312 0.0 U
77. Neolitsea umbrosa (Nees) Gamble Lauraceae MT 2 0.6 74.6 0.309 0.3 U
78. Wendlandia glabrata DC. Rubiaceae ST 2 0.8 30.8 0.306 0.0 U
79. Symplocos racemosa Roxb. Symplocaceae ST 2 0.6 68.9 0.305 0.3 U
80. Styrax serrulatus Roxb. Styracaceae ST 2 0.4 92.6 0.295 0.0 U
81. Archidendron clypearia (Jack) I.C.Nielsen Leguminosae ST 2 0.4 68.2 0.279 0.0 U
82. Helicia nilagirica Bedd. Proteaceae MT 2 0.4 66.1 0.278 0.0 U
83. Ehretia acuminata R.Br. Boraginaceae LT 2 0.4 54.5 0.271 0.0 U
84. Wendlandia ligustrina Wall. ex G.Don Rubiaceae ST 2 0.4 40.7 0.262 0.0 U
85. Premna pinguis C.B.Clarke Lamiaceae SH 2 0.4 39.8 0.261 0.0 U
86. Saurauia fasciculata Wall. Actinidiaceae ST 2 0.4 29.4 0.255 0.0 U
87. Meliosma arnottiana (Wight) Walp. Sabiaceae ST 2 0.4 28.6 0.254 0.0 U
88. Firmiana colorata (Roxb.) R.Br. Malvaceae ST 2 0.4 11.8 0.243 0.0 U
89. Guidonia vareca (Roxb.) Baill. ex Kurz Salicaceae ST 2 0.4 7.5 0.241 0.0 U
90. Machilus glaucescens (Nees) Wight Lauraceae MT 2 0.4 4.4 0.239 0.0 U
91. Eriobotrya bengalensis (Roxb.) Hook. f. Rosaceae LT 1 0.2 155.3 0.217   O
92. Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Müll.Arg. Euphorbiaceae ST 1 0.2 149.4 0.213   O
93. Spatholobus parviflorus (DC.) Kuntze Leguminosae WC 1 0.8 20.1 0.206   O
94. Magnolia champaca (L.) Baill. ex Pierre Magnoliaceae LT 1 0.2 115.0 0.191   O
95. Mallotus paniculatus var. paniculatus Euphorbiaceae ST 1 0.6 19.6 0.181   O
96. Morus macroura Miq. Moraceae ST 1 0.6 19.3 0.180   O
97. Machilus gamblei King ex Hook. f. Lauraceae MT 1 0.4 56.2 0.179   O
98. Hymenodictyon orixense (Roxb.) Mabb. Rubiaceae LT 1 0.4 46.2 0.172   O
99. Actinodaphne obovata (Nees) Blume Lauraceae MT 1 0.6 6.6 0.172   O
100. Spondias pinnata (L. f.) Kurz Anacardiaceae MT 1 0.6 5.9 0.172   O
101. Castanopsis indica (Roxb. ex Lindl.) A. DC. Fagaceae LT 1 0.2 79.4 0.169   O
102. Pterospermum lanceifolium Roxb. Malvaceae MT 1 0.2 72.8 0.164   O
103. Decaspermum parviflorum subsp. parviflorum Myrtaceae ST 1 0.4 30.0 0.162   O
104. Bauhinia purpurea L. Leguminosae ST 1 0.2 68.8 0.162   O
105. Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br. Apocynaceae LT 1 0.2 68.7 0.162   O
106. Ficus subincisa Buch.-Ham. ex Sm. Moraceae SH 1 0.4 22.9 0.158   O
107. Litsea salicifolia (Roxburgh ex Nees) Hook. f. Lauraceae ST 1 0.4 17.0 0.154   O
108. Pandanus furcatus Roxb. Pandanaceae ST 1 0.4 16.5 0.153   O
109. Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. Leguminosae LT 1 0.2 53.2 0.152   O
110. Cinnamomum bejolghota (Buch.-Ham.) Sweet Lauraceae LT 1 0.2 46.6 0.148   O
111. Brassaiopsis hainla (Buch.-Ham.) Seem. Araliaceae ST 1 0.4 5.6 0.147   O
112. Maesa montana A. DC. Primulaceae SH 1 0.4 5.5 0.146   O
113. Macaranga indica Wight Euphorbiaceae MT 1 0.4 3.7 0.145   O
114. Actinodaphne citrata (Blume) Hayata Lauraceae ST 1 0.2 40.4 0.144   O
115. Glochidion khasicum (Müll.Arg.) Hook.f. Phyllanthaceae ST 1 0.2 28.5 0.136   O
116. Toxicodendron succedaneum var. succedaneum Anacardiaceae MT 1 0.2 16.3 0.128   O
117. Garcinia cowa Roxb. ex Choisy Clusiaceae MT 1 0.2 5.9 0.122   O
118. Glochidion heyneanum (Wight & Arn.) Wight Phyllanthaceae ST 1 0.2 2.8 0.120   O
119. Wendlandia wallichii Wight & Arn. Rubiaceae ST 1 0.2 2.4 0.119   O
120. Ardisia humilis Vahl Primulaceae SH 1 0.2 2.0 0.119   O
121. Glochidion sphaerogynum (Mull.Arg.) Kurz Phyllanthaceae MT 1 0.2 1.9 0.119   O
122. Calamus latifolius Roxb. Arecaceae SS 1 0.2 1.5 0.119   O
123. Meliosma sp. Sabiaceae ST 1 0.2 1.5 0.119   O
  Total for all species    104 767.7 156496 300.0   
  1. The dispersion of species is denoted as: U for uniform (63 species), R for random (no species), C for clumped (23 species) and O for obscure (37 species with a single occurrence and absolute zero variance).