Rectangular planting. Left: no plasticity, crowns centred on the rectangular planting pattern. Right: plasticity simulated with the centroidchasing algorithm, crowns are displaced into less contested spaces. Shading indicates effective resource capture, line segments show the displacement of the crown centroid from the stem base locations. Trees at 1.5×4.5 m spacing, H
=14 m, a=1, b=3.5, α→∞, efficiency weighting.