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Table 7 Statistics for the fixed parts of mixed-effects models (best in boldface, worst in italics )

From: Evaluation of different approaches to individual tree growth and survival modelling using data collected at irregular intervals – a case study for Pinus patula in Kenya

  Modelling and simulation approach
Regression 1 Regression 2 Regression 2 Optimization
1-year step 1-year step true step 1-year step
Basal area     
- bias (m2 · ha–1) –1.07 3.01 3.82 0.18
- RMSE (m2 · ha–1) 3.33 7.66 9.49 3.24
Number of trees per hectare    
- bias –18.00 49.97 49.97 5.63
- RMSE 64.01 135.94 135.94 50.78
Annual basal area increment    
- bias (m2 · ha–1) 0.885 0.355 0.463 0.013
- bias (%) 66.04 26.49 34.55 0.97
- RMSE (m2 · ha–1) 1.322 1.339 1.476 0.976